Using Agent-Based Models to Develop Public Policy about Food Behaviours: Future Directions and Recommendations

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childhood obesity 37574 in using SD. For example, the Georgia Health Policy Center introducing SD to policymakers working on childhood obesity and, several months later, the General Assembly passed legislation on childhood obesity. As reported
childhood obesity 37662 working on childhood obesity and, several months later, the General Assembly passed legislation on childhood obesity . As reported by the authors, “several attendees of our program commented that the level of conversation
obesity 1956 interventions.1. IntroductionMany countries are faced with a very high prevalence of overweight and obesity . In the United States, 75% of adult men and 67% of adult women are overweight or obese [[1]]. Similarly,
obesity 2267 models developed for Canada, Australia, or the United States predict continued increase in the rates of obesity [[2], [4], [5]]. Hence, overweight and obesity is a key area for public health. In particular, new policy
obesity 2314 United States predict continued increase in the rates of obesity [[2], [4], [5]]. Hence, overweight and obesity is a key area for public health. In particular, new policy documents have emphasized the role of eating
obesity 3919 benefit from the resources articulated here. In particular, “network models” as they are used in obesity research can sometimes be simplified ABMs, where researchers detailed peer interactions but simplified
obesity 5579 even shop far away from home/work in the case of low-income groups, which are disproportionally facing obesity [[14], [21]].A second and related limitation is the fact that developing detailed ABMs of food behaviours
obesity 6206 [[22]]) from the ones on developing ABMs of food behaviours (typically public health nutrition and obesity research [[23]]). Finally, policies can tackle several determinants of food behaviours at the same time,
obesity 6757 but such use of ABMs is not yet the norm.While several reviews have been dedicated to modelling in obesity (including ABMs for food behaviours) [[24]–[26]], they generally focus on how models have been used
obesity 16289 for health research can be found in [[46]–[48]] while a recent overview of gaps and solutions in obesity research is provided by [[49]]. In some countries, it is possible to request access to the location
obesity 27846 environmental sources of influence, can be tested using an ABM and produce estimates (e.g., impacts on diet and obesity ). Supporting “what-if” scenarios is one of the main applications of modelling and simulation [[68]]
obesity 30836 while there is ample evidence that socioeconomic inequalities in diet contribute to inequalities in obesity and chronic disease risk. For example, a review of cross-sectional studies showed that higher-quality
obesity 35956 different delays (e.g., insufficient resources can quickly jeopardize a program while health outcomes of obesity policies may take longer to manifest), and their relationship may be linear (e.g., the program may approximately
obesity 36621 the combination of strategies with potential for greatest impact” in the context of overweight and obesity [[87]]. Modellers are thus faced with a choice: they can develop the policy component of the model within
obesity 36939 alternatively, they can connect their ABM with validated SD models (there are many examples for the use of SD in obesity research, although more commonly to study changes in body weight over time at the individual [[88]–[90]]
obesity 37584 SD. For example, the Georgia Health Policy Center introducing SD to policymakers working on childhood obesity and, several months later, the General Assembly passed legislation on childhood obesity. As reported
obesity 37672 on childhood obesity and, several months later, the General Assembly passed legislation on childhood obesity . As reported by the authors, “several attendees of our program commented that the level of conversation
obesity 37989 legislation.” [[94], p. 121] Such outcomes contribute to the reputation of SD with policymakers in the field of obesity , while training events may help them in expressing their mental models using the SD paradigm rather
obesity 46142 using the road network of downtown Vancouver, BC.Figure 2Viewing an intervention on overweight and obesity as a system using SD. This nonfinal model was sketched in the context of the “Mind, Exercise, Nutrition,

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