Review of Mouse Models of Graves' Disease and Orbitopathy-Novel Treatment by Induction of Tolerance.

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goiter 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperthyroidism 7 endocrinologydiseases

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goiter 3880 challenge of comparing these models [[3], [7]]. Elevated T4 levels, stimulating anti-TSH antibodies, goiter and typical histological alterations, were considered to be essential characteristics of any model which
hyperthyroidism 2115 autoimmune condition targeting the thyrotropin-TSH receptor (TSHR) in the thyroid gland, resulting in hyperthyroidism [[1]], with an annual incidence of 15–80 per 100,000 persons throughout the world. A quality of life
hyperthyroidism 2671 antibody-mediated autoimmune condition targeting the TSH receptor (TSHR) in the thyroid gland which results in hyperthyroidism can be replicated in mouse models [[3]], preferably in TSHR-immunised mice. This was initially observed
hyperthyroidism 2882 observed in the transfected fibroblast model [[4]], in which about 25 % of injected mice developed hyperthyroidism , and after recombinant dendritic cell injections [[5]]. After some failed efforts to use plasmid immunisations,
hyperthyroidism 13236 (nuclear spin) imaging MRI [[9]].Cardiac Involvement in PatientsA clinical feature of all forms of hyperthyroidism is cardiac involvement which is directly caused by the action of thyroid hormones on nuclear receptors
hyperthyroidism 13875 cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have been reported in patients with both, overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism [[24]–[27]]. Hyperthyroid patients suffering from Graves’ disease are at especially increased cardiovascular
hyperthyroidism 28954 The authors have so far not published data on treatment of established disease nor on thyroid size or hyperthyroidism .Intravenous Conformational Epitope Peptide Therapy for Thyroid DiseaseIn parallel and as an extension
hyperthyroidism 30247 intravenous administration of target doses—to mitigate disease manifestations such as thyroid enlargement, hyperthyroidism and retro-orbital fibrosis. To this end, an identical protocol was used as described before [[15]],

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