The Beneficial Effects of Quercetin, Curcumin, and Resveratrol in Obesity.

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diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 33 endocrinologydiseases
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diabetes mellitus 2178 adipose tissue dysfunction [[2]]. It is well known that obesity is a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cancer, and T2DM is linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension
obesity 940 ChinaPublication date (ppub): /2017Publication date (epub): 8/2017AbstractOver the past two decades, obesity has been one of the major public health concerns in most countries. In the search for new molecules
obesity 1088 concerns in most countries. In the search for new molecules that could be used for the treatment of obesity , good perspectives have been opened up for polyphenols, a class of natural bioactive phytochemicals.
obesity 1358 that some polyphenols such as quercetin, curcumin, and resveratrol have potential benefit functions on obesity treatment. This brief review focuses on the main functions of the above-named polyphenols on adipose
obesity 1802 suppressing the differentiation of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes.1. IntroductionOver the past decades, obesity has been one of the major public health threats in most developed countries and in an increasing number
obesity 2135 the hypertrophy of adipocytes and results in adipose tissue dysfunction [[2]]. It is well known that obesity is a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cancer, and T2DM is linked to the development
obesity 2347 development of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis [[3], [4]]. Furthermore, obesity was associated with higher disability rates and mortality rates in the elderly [[5]]. A better understanding
obesity 2490 disability rates and mortality rates in the elderly [[5]]. A better understanding of the molecular basis of obesity will lead to establish strategies for prevention and treatment of obesity.Adipose tissue is composed
obesity 2564 of the molecular basis of obesity will lead to establish strategies for prevention and treatment of obesity .Adipose tissue is composed of many kinds of cell types, including adipocytes, macrophages, endothelial
obesity 4500 [[11]–[15]]. Human studies showed that activation of brown-like adipocytes is a potential way to counteract obesity [[12], [13], [16]–[19]].Oxidative stress is referred to an event resulting from the imbalance between
obesity 5023 death [[21]]. A series of studies have revealed that oxidative stress is related to the development of obesity . Excess levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) might lead to the dysfunction of mitochondria by inhibiting
obesity 5740 “phytochemicals,” have gained interest by researchers for preventing and treating diseases, including obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases [[24]–[29]].Among the phytochemicals studied, researchers pay
obesity 5752 “phytochemicals,” have gained interest by researchers for preventing and treating diseases, including obesity and obesity -related metabolic diseases [[24]–[29]].Among the phytochemicals studied, researchers pay more attention
obesity 6316 the roles of and the mechanisms of polyphenols including quercetin, curcumin, and resveratrol and on obesity and adipose tissue function.2. QuercetinQuercetin is the most abundant of flavonoids and is found in
obesity 6569 [[36]].2.1. Effects on Cell Culture Models of ObesityThe first in vitro study investigating the potential anti obesity effect of quercetin on obesity was performed on primary adipocytes. Kuppusamy and Das found that quercetin
obesity 6600 Models of ObesityThe first in vitro study investigating the potential antiobesity effect of quercetin on obesity was performed on primary adipocytes. Kuppusamy and Das found that quercetin induced lipolysis of primary
obesity 7865 as well as of glycolysis-associated enzymes ENO2, PFKP, and PFKFB4, all of which are associated with obesity and adipose tissue dysfunction [[41]]. Adipocyte browning is a promising strategy for the prevention
obesity 7977 adipose tissue dysfunction [[41]]. Adipocyte browning is a promising strategy for the prevention of obesity [[14], [42]–[44]]. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, quercetin (50 μM) induced the expression of brown adipocyte-specific
obesity 10411 ObesityAlthough many cell culture and animal studies focused on the beneficial effects of quercetin in obesity , there are only a limited number of human studies and clinical trials that have been performed to evaluate
obesity 10554 human studies and clinical trials that have been performed to evaluate the effects of quercetin on obesity treatment. In a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, Lee et al. demonstrated
obesity 10927 index (BMI) of overweight or obese subjects [[54]]. Another study evaluated the effects of quercetin on obesity in overweight-obese subjects with various apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes; the authors reported that
obesity 12305 need to further investigate the bioactive effects and bioavailability of quercetin in the treatment of obesity .3. CurcuminCurcumin is derived from and is the most bioactive polyphenol in the spice turmeric [[60]].
obesity 14011 expenditure after curcumin treatment [[65]]. Curcumin also showed anti-inflammatory functions. In HFD-induced obesity and in genetic obesity (ob/ob mice) models, curcumin reduced adipose tissue inflammation by reducing
obesity 14034 treatment [[65]]. Curcumin also showed anti-inflammatory functions. In HFD-induced obesity and in genetic obesity (ob/ob mice) models, curcumin reduced adipose tissue inflammation by reducing macrophage infiltration
obesity 14608 cells or animals, studies on obese subjects are limited. The first clinical trial using curcumin for obesity treatment was conducted by Mohammadi et al. [[68]]. In this study, obese subjects were treated with
obesity 15382 IL-1β and IL-4 of obese individuals [[69]], indicating the anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin in obesity therapy. Moreover, oral curcumin supplementation (1 g/day for 30 days) was effective in reducing oxidative
obesity 15596 oxidative stress burden in obese individuals [[70]].Although curcumin has been used for clinical trials in obesity treatment, the multifaceted pharmacological nature of curcumin and its pharmacokinetics and the side
obesity 15728 multifaceted pharmacological nature of curcumin and its pharmacokinetics and the side effects of curcumin in obesity therapy need to be carefully investigated. The recommended maximum daily usage of curcumin is 1 mg/kg
obesity 16567 actions [[76]] and showed beneficial effects in preventing the development of many diseases including obesity and diabetes [[77]].4.1. Effects on Cell Culture and Ex Vivo Adipose Tissue Culture Models of ObesityResveratrol
obesity 18281 ObesityDietary treatment of rodents with resveratrol protected mice against HFD-induced body weight gain and obesity by increasing energy expenditure which was partly mediated by stimulating intracellular mitochondrial
obesity 19975 Resveratrol to Treat ObesityAlthough several clinical trials that examine the effect of resveratrol on obesity are currently ongoing (see http://clinicaltrials.gov) or have finished (see Review [[100]]), none of
obesity 21072 obtained from the two reports may possibly lie in the administered doses of resveratrol they used for obesity treatment. The latter report used 1500 mg/day for the trial [[103]]; this dose was ten times of the
obesity 21321 [[102]].5. Concluding RemarksIn the search for new molecules that could be used for the treatment of obesity , good perspectives have been opened up for polyphenols. Current knowledge from cell cultures and animal
obesity 21956 there is still no sufficient data to support the high-dose and long-term usage of these polyphenols in obesity treatment
type 2 diabetes mellitus 2171 results in adipose tissue dysfunction [[2]]. It is well known that obesity is a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cancer, and T2DM is linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension

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