Common and distinct regulation of human and mouse brown and beige adipose tissues: a promising therapeutic target for obesity.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
Insulin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
cholic acid 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 1 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 26 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 11306 et al. ([68])BiomarkersUCP1, LHX8, and ZIC1,MPZL2, HOXC9, EBF3, FBXO31, and LEP,Cypess et al. ([26]) Insulin sensitivityHighLowOrava et al. ([16])ActivatorsCold, exerciseHigh-calorie dietSaito et al. ([6]), Orava
cholic acid 26161 [55]), which may underlie glucocorticoid therapy-associated body-weight gain. The bile acid, chenodeoxy cholic acid (CDCA), is another steroid molecule that is essential for metabolism and thought to increase human whole-body
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 9623 These results provoke the hypothesis that converting WAT into BAT is a promising approach to treat diabetes mellitus . However, the mechanisms of hBAT glucose uptake are not well understood. UCP1, the BAT marker gene,
metabolic syndrome 29501 Serum concentrations of DHEA, a steroid sex hormone precursor, inversely correlate with biomarkers of metabolic syndrome , indicating that DHEA may modulate adipose tissue mass and function. DHEA inhibits PAZ6 preadipocyte
obesity 139 distinct regulation of human and mouse brown and beige adipose tissues: a promising therapeutic target for obesity Xuejiao LiuChristopher CervantesFeng LiuPublication date (epub): 2/2017Publication date (pmc-release):
obesity 469 a growing public health challenge for which established therapies are inadequate. Given the current obesity epidemic, there is a pressing need for more novel therapeutic strategies that will help adult individuals
obesity 659 help adult individuals to manage their weight. One promising therapeutic intervention for reducing obesity is to enhance energy expenditure. Investigations into human brown fat and the recently discovered beige/brite
obesity 2395 sedentary occupations, overabundance of food, lack of physical activity, and warm shelter, causing obesity rates to skyrocket as more countries move from being undeveloped to developed. As the World Health Organization
obesity 2554 being undeveloped to developed. As the World Health Organization (WHO) reported in June 2016, worldwide obesity has more than doubled since 1980 (World Health Organization Fact Sheets: Obesity and Overweight, [1]).
obesity 3108 [1]). In other words, food shortages have not been as deadly as food surpluses. According to the data, obesity , which is associated with type 2 diabetes, polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension, cardiovascular
obesity 3367 challenge of the 21st century (Eckel et al., [2]). Thus, therapeutic approaches that prevent and/or reverse obesity deserve further exploration.Brown adipocytes, which are rich in mitochondria, are different from white
obesity 3616 more efficiently. Indeed, increased energy expenditure would be expected to reverse and/or prevent obesity (Hall et al., [3]). Given that active BAT with energy dissipation function has been confirmed in a number
obesity 3907 [6]; van Marken Lichtenbelt et al., [7]), research interests into human BAT as a means of controlling obesity by diverting excess fat into heat has greatly intensified and represents a novel therapeutic approach
obesity 7791 provided researchers with the necessary tools to assess BAT’s therapeutic potential in treating human obesity .MORPHOLOGICAL, FUNCTIONAL, AND GENETIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BAT AND WAT IN HUMANSCompared to WAT, human
obesity 17620 Orava et al., [16]). These observations reveal hBAT as an attractive target for treating and preventing obesity . However, the promoting effect of cold-exposure on energy expenditure is markedly suppressed by fasting-induced
obesity 20572 lipolytic activity of adipocytes, and dysregulated ILC2 responses in WAT are a conserved feature of obesity in humans and mice (Brestoff et al., [42]), suggesting these pathways may play the same roles across
obesity 21282 will undoubtedly advance our understanding about thermogenic regulation and may lead to novel anti- obesity drug treatments.EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON hBAT ACTIVITY AND THE UNDERLYING MECHANISMSExercise could produce
obesity 22899 master transcription factor regulating adipocyte differentiation (Carriere et al., [49]). Furthermore, obesity elevates lactate production in rat WAT due to hypoxia (DiGirolamo et al., [50]). The lactate then stimulates
obesity 23188 autocrine/paracrine effect. This could reflect a self-regulatory response to limit the accumulation of fat during obesity (Trayhurn and Alomar, [51]). Indeed, fat cells cultured from obese or diabetic humans metabolize more
obesity 24183 energy expenditure (Speakman and Selman, [45]).Figure 1The mechanisms by which cold, exercise, and obesity regulate thermogenesis. Cold exposure could improve browning and thermogenesis of human adipocytes through
obesity 25211 neighboring adipocytes, which in turn, limits the accumulation of fat, thereby impeding the development of obesity REGULATORY FACTORS OF HUMAN BATHuman brown adipocytes are regulated by many intrinsic factors, including
obesity 26660 drug for humans (Broeders et al., [56]), CDCA is a promising candidate to activate hBAT and counter obesity and its related metabolic diseases. Thus, identification of more endogenous regulatory factors is critically
obesity 30753 findings in hBAT are clinically valuable for guiding future prevention strategies and treatments for obesity , insulin resistance, and other related metabolic diseases (Hall et al., [3]). Increasing human energy
obesity 31356 have been reported to promote adipocyte browning remodeling and are potential approaches for treating obesity without the exercise (Bostrom et al., [46]; Carriere et al., [49]). Molecules such as FGF-21, natriuretic
obesity 31559 natriuretic peptides, and thyroid hormones have also been suggested as potential drugs to counteract obesity and its related metabolic diseases. The thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine (T3), has been shown to profoundly
obesity 31841 brown-like fat cells as well as skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue (Crisan et al., [64]). Another anti- obesity strategy that has not been considered in this review, but warrant serious investigation, includes transforming
obesity 32473 skeletal muscle into brown fat represents another novel approach to promote thermogenesis and combat obesity .Although pharmacological means to treat obesity are possible, supraphysiological concentrations of these
obesity 32521 novel approach to promote thermogenesis and combat obesity.Although pharmacological means to treat obesity are possible, supraphysiological concentrations of these medications are associated with severe side
obesity 33633 that a better understanding of hBAT physiology will lead to new pharmacological targets for treating obesity , and given the current obesity epidemic, more physiological studies of brown adipose tissue in healthy
obesity 33664 hBAT physiology will lead to new pharmacological targets for treating obesity, and given the current obesity epidemic, more physiological studies of brown adipose tissue in healthy adult individuals are needed

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