A systematic review on the impact of diabetes mellitus on the ocular surface.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
diabetic neuropathy 1 endocrinologydiseases
diabetic retinopathy 8 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 8 endocrinologydiseases
type 1 diabetes mellitus 2 endocrinologydiseases
Insulin 3 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes insipidus 1 endocrinologydiseases
diabetes mellitus 8 endocrinologydiseases
diabetic autonomic neuropathy 2 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 25527 endocrinologist, can prevent further progression of corneal epitheliopathy and neuropathy.[63], [114] Insulin treatment in diabetic mice reduced the level of oxidative stress in the lacrimal gland, assessed by
Insulin 39470 models, in particular insulin and nerve growth factor (NGF), have had promising results.[81], [124] Insulin is a much cheaper drug to produce than NGF, and therefore more likely to widely adopted, but it does
Insulin 39737 Moreover NGF can be easily degraded by alteration of temperature, pH and presence of tear proteases.[126] Insulin -like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) promotes cell proliferation and when administrated topically to type 2
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes insipidus 3346 articles that involved only the posterior segment of the eye (retina, vitreous) or involving only ‘ diabetes insipidus ' and not ‘diabetes mellitus' would be considered irrelevant. A total of 106 were deemed irrelevant.Cornea
diabetes mellitus 64 Title: Nutrition & DiabetesA systematic review on the impact of diabetes mellitus on the ocular surfaceAlternative Title: Systemic review diabetes ocular surfaceK Co ShihK S-L LamL TongPublication
diabetes mellitus 3377 posterior segment of the eye (retina, vitreous) or involving only ‘diabetes insipidus' and not ‘ diabetes mellitus ' would be considered irrelevant. A total of 106 were deemed irrelevant.Cornea epithelial disease and
diabetes mellitus 28752 profession is essential for optimal management.Figure 1Schematic showing pathogenesis of corneal disease in diabetes mellitus . Hyperglycemia and formation of advanced glycation end products have distinct effects on different parts
diabetes mellitus 29461 and increased apoptosis impacts on epithelial wound healing. (2) Neuronal damage is a key defect in diabetes mellitus . Prolonged hyperglycemia results in the accumulation of advanced glycation end products which promotes
diabetes mellitus 32470 (mm mm−2) NFD (no. mm−2) NBD (no. mm−2)DM2/C: 19.7/24.9 299.2/397.3 165.2/226.7 Abbreviations:aDM, diabetes mellitus ; DR, diabetic retinopathy; NPDF, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy; PDR, proliferative diabetic
diabetes mellitus 32726 density; NFD, nerve fiber density; NFL, nerve fiber length; NT, nerve tortuosity.cC, control; DM1, type 1 diabetes mellitus ; DM2, type 2 diabetes melliltus.Table 2Studies comparing corneal nerve parameters in different stages
diabetes mellitus 36485 fiber density (via skin biopsy, gold standard)Abbreviations:aAN, diabetic autonomic neuropathy; DM, diabetes mellitus ; PN, diabetic peripheral neuropathy.bNBD, nerve branch density; NFD, nerve fiber density; NFL, nerve
diabetes mellitus 36664 density; NFD, nerve fiber density; NFL, nerve fiber length; NT, nerve tortuosity.cC, control; DM1, type 1 diabetes mellitus ; DM2, type 2 diabetes melliltus.New systemic therapiesResolvin-D1, an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid,
diabetic autonomic neuropathy 14868 nerve fiber length in sub-basal nerve plexus have also been found to be associated with subclinical diabetic autonomic neuropathy which may be life-threatening, including cardiovascular complications such as arrhythmias or sudden
diabetic autonomic neuropathy 36450 measurements and intraepidermal nerve fiber density (via skin biopsy, gold standard)Abbreviations:aAN, diabetic autonomic neuropathy ; DM, diabetes mellitus; PN, diabetic peripheral neuropathy.bNBD, nerve branch density; NFD, nerve fiber
diabetic neuropathy 28094 mice with visible corneal nerves will be immensely valuable to investigate changes in animals with diabetic neuropathy , especially in the cornea.[7]Apart from more conventional approaches, newer therapeutic agents including
diabetic retinopathy 758 nerves, immune cells and endothelium) underpin specific systemic complications of diabetes. Just as diabetic retinopathy is a marker of more generalized microvascular disease, corneal nerve changes can predict peripheral
diabetic retinopathy 7873 mediator for all chronic DM complications including macrovascular and microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy in the eye. The accumulation of AGE in the cornea epithelium-basement membrane shifts local cell signaling
diabetic retinopathy 15833 cornea. Reduction of corneal nerve fiber density or length have been shown to predict the development of diabetic retinopathy as well as sight-threatening retinopathy.[45], [47], [78]The formation of AGE may not be the initial
diabetic retinopathy 30847 16.9/16.1/23.3 9.7/10.7/16.1 1.5/1.6/1.4Increasing severity of nerve fiber parameters with higher stages of diabetic retinopathy , history of nephropathy, peripheral neuropathy, and decreased corneal sensation predictive of abnormal
diabetic retinopathy 31924 (no. mm−2)DM/C: 0.006/0.020 6.22/19.99 25.3/141.9No difference in CCM parameters between patients with or without diabetic retinopathy , corneal sensation was significantly lower in the diabetic group than in controlsWang et al. (2014)[19]ChinaType
diabetic retinopathy 32493 (no. mm−2) NBD (no. mm−2)DM2/C: 19.7/24.9 299.2/397.3 165.2/226.7 Abbreviations:aDM, diabetes mellitus; DR, diabetic retinopathy ; NPDF, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy; PDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy.bNBD, nerve branch
diabetic retinopathy 32539 (no. mm−2)DM2/C: 19.7/24.9 299.2/397.3 165.2/226.7 Abbreviations:aDM, diabetes mellitus; DR, diabetic retinopathy; NPDF, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy ; PDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy.bNBD, nerve branch density; NFD, nerve fiber density; NFL,
diabetic retinopathy 32580 mellitus; DR, diabetic retinopathy; NPDF, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy; PDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy .bNBD, nerve branch density; NFD, nerve fiber density; NFL, nerve fiber length; NT, nerve tortuosity.cC,
hyperglycemia 4953 high levels of glucose in the culture medium can induce the production of IGFBP3, suggesting that the hyperglycemia in patients may be the cause of the IGFBP3 upregulation. This paper did not examine other potential
hyperglycemia 5384 studies with C57 db/db mice[27], [28] and four studies involving rats[24], [29], [30], [31] showed that hyperglycemia induced detrimental effects on the cornea epithelium-basement membrane complex. In these studies, decreases
hyperglycemia 7389 beta islet cells in the pancreas of the animals, with reduction of insulin secretion and consequent hyperglycemia . The hyperglycemia-related effects as well as the oxidative stress associated with ingestion of fat
hyperglycemia 7408 the pancreas of the animals, with reduction of insulin secretion and consequent hyperglycemia. The hyperglycemia -related effects as well as the oxidative stress associated with ingestion of fat and ethanol in OLEFT
hyperglycemia 16629 not known. It has been found that immune cell infiltration of animal corneas may precede the induced hyperglycemia (ARVO 2015 e-abstract 3076). In fact, in a longitudinal rat study, the pre-diabetic obese rats have
hyperglycemia 16900 abnormalities with the diabetic rats.[67] This suggests that accumulation of AGE, which is dependent on hyperglycemia and not present in pre-diabetic animals, is unlikely to be the cause of immune dysfunction in these
hyperglycemia 29490 impacts on epithelial wound healing. (2) Neuronal damage is a key defect in diabetes mellitus. Prolonged hyperglycemia results in the accumulation of advanced glycation end products which promotes inflammation and oxidative
hyperglycemia 29762 health and myelin formation, but their production are inhibited in hyperglycemic states. (3) Prolonged hyperglycemia also results in endothelial cell loss and impairment in pump function. Apart from these processes, the
type 1 diabetes mellitus 32719 density; NFD, nerve fiber density; NFL, nerve fiber length; NT, nerve tortuosity.cC, control; DM1, type 1 diabetes mellitus ; DM2, type 2 diabetes melliltus.Table 2Studies comparing corneal nerve parameters in different stages
type 1 diabetes mellitus 36657 density; NFD, nerve fiber density; NFL, nerve fiber length; NT, nerve tortuosity.cC, control; DM1, type 1 diabetes mellitus ; DM2, type 2 diabetes melliltus.New systemic therapiesResolvin-D1, an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid,

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