The Potential Role of Aerobic Exercise-Induced Pentraxin 3 on Obesity-Related Inflammation and Metabolic Dysregulation

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
type 2 diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
Insulin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperinsulinemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 2 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 24 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 7908 pathology and disease status.3. PTX3 Dysregulation in Obesity3.1. Obesity-Mediated Inflammation and Insulin ResistanceObesity is defined as the excess accumulation of intra-abdominal body fat which can be subdivided
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 2025 obesity-related metabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance and the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes mellitus [[4], [5]]. Alarmingly, adult obesity prevalence rates in the United States have significantly increased
hyperinsulinemia 15655 responsible for the elevated expression of PTX3 mRNA observed in obese humans.In addition to inflammation, hyperinsulinemia , hypoxia, and reactive oxygen species are linked to the dysregulation of adipose tissue protein expression.
metabolic syndrome 13152 proinflammatory as a result of M1 macrophage accumulation within VAT is associated with the number of metabolic syndrome parameters [[3], [53]] and is directly linked with the development and pathology of insulin resistance
metabolic syndrome 19290 insulin resistance [[11]–[13], [65]–[67], [75]] and incrementally lower with increased parameters of metabolic syndrome [[65], [67]]. Plasma PTX3 concentrations are also negatively related with the insulin response following
obesity 1210 elevated expression of PTX3 mRNA observed in adipose tissue, the circulating level of PTX3 is reduced with obesity . Interestingly, aerobic activity has been demonstrated to elevate PTX3 levels. Therefore, the purpose
obesity 1406 Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the therapeutic potential of PTX3 to positively regulate obesity -related inflammation and discuss the proposition for utilizing aerobic exercise as a nonpharmacological
obesity 1916 [[1]–[3]]. This proinflammatory state directly contributes to the increased risk and pathology of obesity -related metabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance and the subsequent development of type 2
obesity 2073 resistance and the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes mellitus [[4], [5]]. Alarmingly, adult obesity prevalence rates in the United States have significantly increased from 30.5% to 37.7% since the turn
obesity 2287 the century [[6]], highlighting the need to identify potential therapeutic approaches that attenuate obesity -related proinflammatory profiles.Counter to obesity-related inflammation, pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute-phase
obesity 2339 potential therapeutic approaches that attenuate obesity-related proinflammatory profiles.Counter to obesity -related inflammation, pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute-phase protein that is induced in response to proinflammatory
obesity 2581 variety of cell types, including adipocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages [[7]–[9]]. With obesity , PTX3 mRNA expression is elevated in adipose tissue and is positively associated with the mRNA expression
obesity 3017 individuals [[11]–[13]], suggesting that circulating PTX3 concentrations are dysregulated during obesity . Recent studies further demonstrate that PTX3 elicits the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines
obesity 3331 [[14]–[16]]. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the potential factors contributing to obesity -related PTX3 dysregulation. Furthermore, this review will address the therapeutic potential of PTX3
obesity 3450 PTX3 dysregulation. Furthermore, this review will address the therapeutic potential of PTX3 to improve obesity -related inflammatory imbalance, and because of the reported elevations in PTX3 following aerobic exercise
obesity 8209 (VAT). While both tissue types are important, evidence suggests that VAT is a stronger predictor of obesity -related inflammation and metabolic disease [[39], [40]]. SAT and VAT accumulation is a result of the
obesity 10495 TGF-β, which attenuate the proinflammatory response and initiate tissue repair [[49], [50]].During obesity , excess VAT hypertrophy is associated with an increased concentration of macrophages [[3]]. In fact,
obesity 12213 IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α that contribute to the state of chronic, low-grade inflammation observed during obesity [[3], [4]]. M1 macrophages also express and secrete the proinflammatory chemokine MCP-1 in proportion
obesity 12514 [[52]]. Bories et al. [[46]] further report that the systemic proinflammatory environment observed during obesity predisposes circulating monocytes toward a proinflammatory phenotype, and upon entry into the adipose
obesity 12996 feedback loop that further exacerbates the local and systemic proinflammatory milieu observed during obesity .Studies also demonstrate that obesity-related proinflammatory as a result of M1 macrophage accumulation
obesity 13034 the local and systemic proinflammatory milieu observed during obesity.Studies also demonstrate that obesity -related proinflammatory as a result of M1 macrophage accumulation within VAT is associated with the
obesity 16562 insight into the factors that contribute to elevated PTX3 mRNA expression in adipose tissue during obesity .3.3. Circulating PTX3 Concentrations during ObesityCirculating PTX3 concentrations are negatively associated
obesity 16704 Concentrations during ObesityCirculating PTX3 concentrations are negatively associated with numerous indices of obesity , including BMI, waist and hip circumferences, and visceral fat mass (11, 67, 71, 86, 87, 99, 103), and
obesity 17117 increased interest in utilizing plasma PTX3 concentrations as a biomarker to assess the severity of obesity -related inflammation and metabolic disease. In contrast to the PTX3 mRNA expression patterns observed
obesity 22531 addition, these findings support the posit that PTX3 regulates the proinflammatory milieu observed during obesity , potentially by attenuating the infiltration of leukocytes into the adipose tissue.4.2. Systemic Anti-Inflammatory
obesity 27114 interventions) which elevate circulating PTX3 concentrations in obese individuals will help restore obesity -related inflammatory imbalances and shift the systemic and local inflammatory microenvironments to an
obesity 27356 Response to Aerobic ExerciseAerobic exercise training is an effective therapeutic approach against obesity -related proinflammatory and metabolic dysfunction. In fact, aerobic exercise training reduces adipocyte
obesity 31220 target for demonstrating and understanding the mechanistic impact of various therapies that address obesity -related chronic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. With the growing obesity epidemic and the long-term
obesity 31301 therapies that address obesity-related chronic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. With the growing obesity epidemic and the long-term health consequences of proinflammatory diseases, additional research focusing
type 2 diabetes mellitus 2018 obesity-related metabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance and the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes mellitus [[4], [5]]. Alarmingly, adult obesity prevalence rates in the United States have significantly increased

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