Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists (GLP-1RAs) in the Brain-Adipocyte Axis.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
Insulin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
Liraglutide 9 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
dulaglutide 5 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
Albiglutide 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
Exenatide 7 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
amphetamine 3 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 5 endocrinologydiseases
hypoglycemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 10 endocrinologydiseases
type 2 diabetes mellitus 3 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Albiglutide 10392 bound by a peptide linker to the Fc component of a modified human immunoglobulin G4 heavy chain [[21]]. Albiglutide is also a once-weekly GLP-1RA consisting of two copies of a 30 amino acid sequence of modified human
Albiglutide 11066 [[58]]Long-acting GLP-1RAs Liraglutide once daily1.8 mg/3.0 mga [[59]] Exenatide once weekly2.0 mg [[60]] Albiglutide once weekly30.0 mg/50.0 mg [[61]] Dulaglutide once weekly0.75 mg/1.5 mg [[62]]GLP-1 glucagon-like
Exenatide 10863 the treatment of diabetes mellitus and obesityGLP-1-based therapiesUsual doseShort-acting GLP-1RAs Exenatide twice daily5.0 µg/10.0 µg [[57]] Lixisenatide once daily10.0 µg/20.0 µg [[58]]Long-acting GLP-1RAs Liraglutide
Exenatide 11029 daily10.0 µg/20.0 µg [[58]]Long-acting GLP-1RAs Liraglutide once daily1.8 mg/3.0 mga [[59]] Exenatide once weekly2.0 mg [[60]] Albiglutide once weekly30.0 mg/50.0 mg [[61]] Dulaglutide once weekly0.75 mg/1.5 mg
Exenatide 26836 levels reduced the activation of the insula region comparing diabetic subjects versus lean subjects[[86]] Exenatide HomeostasisfMRI with food pictures to evaluate hypothalamic connectivity/n = 24Responders vs. non-responders
Exenatide 27585 areas/n = 48Obese subjects with T2DM, and obese individuals and lean individuals with normoglycemia Exenatide blunted food-related brain activation in T2DM patients and obese subjects in reward-related brain areas[[55]]Homeostasis[(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-PET/CT/n = 15Effect
Exenatide 27829 areas[[55]]Homeostasis[(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-PET/CT/n = 15Effect of single dose of exenatide on cerebral glucose metabolism Exenatide increased glucose metabolism in brain areas related to glucose homeostasis, appetite, and food reward[[87]]HomeostasisfMRI
Exenatide 28067 food pictures/n = 20Obese vs. lean individuals with and without exenatide infusion during the test Exenatide blunted the fMRI signal in amygdala, insula, hippocampus, and frontal cortex in obese individuals but
Exenatide 28662 SPECT scans to assess presynaptic dopaminergic deficit/n = 10Before and after 12 weeks of exenatide Exenatide promoted minimal changes in all ganglia subregions in [123I]FP-CIT activitya[[89]]LiraglutideHomeostasisfMRI
Insulin 11592 glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonistsaBiological effectsClinical benefits/commentsPancreatic effects ↑ Insulin and ↓ glucagon secretion (not during hypoglycemia)There is robust evidence of enhancement of β cell
Liraglutide 9789 formulated in microspheres of poly-(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) for once-weekly administration [[19]]. Liraglutide is another long-acting GLP-1RA that is administered once daily. It is identical to the native GLP-1,
Liraglutide 10982 daily5.0 µg/10.0 µg [[57]] Lixisenatide once daily10.0 µg/20.0 µg [[58]]Long-acting GLP-1RAs Liraglutide once daily1.8 mg/3.0 mga [[59]] Exenatide once weekly2.0 mg [[60]] Albiglutide once weekly30.0 mg/50.0 mg
Liraglutide 11241 weekly0.75 mg/1.5 mg [[62]]GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1, GLP-1RA glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonista Liraglutide was approved as an adjunct treatment for long-term weight management in adults. The recommended dose
Liraglutide 20595 administered intraperitoneally has also been shown to increase neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus [[37]]. Liraglutide was evaluated in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease in an intermediate stage of disease progression;
Liraglutide 25488 non-diabetic patients. One-hour gastric emptying was 13 and 23% slower than placebo, respectively. Liraglutide doses similarly increased postprandial satiety and fullness and reduced hunger and prospective food
Liraglutide 28754 exenatideExenatide promoted minimal changes in all ganglia subregions in [123I]FP-CIT activitya[[89]] Liraglutide HomeostasisfMRI with food pictures/n = 21Individuals with T2DM treated with liraglutide vs. placebo
Liraglutide 28882 with food pictures/n = 21Individuals with T2DM treated with liraglutide vs. placebo during 17 days Liraglutide decreased brain activation in parietal cortex and areas of the reward system (insula and putamen) after
Liraglutide 29135 response to food cues/n = 20Individuals with T2DM treated with liraglutide vs. placebo during 17 days Liraglutide reduced activation of the attention- and reward-related insula in response to food cues and this change
Liraglutide 29446 cues/n = 20Obese and diabetic subjects treated with liraglutide or insulin glargine during 12 weeks Liraglutide promoted reduced responses to food cues in insula and putamen in relation to insulin after 10 days
amphetamine 750 and the other expresses the anorexigenic anorectic neuropeptides proopiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine -regulated transcript (POMC/CART). In addition to integrating signals from neurotransmitters and hormones,
amphetamine 5440 the figure), GLP-1 reduces food intake by acting directly in proopiomelanocortin (POMC)/cocaine- and amphetamine -regulated transcript (CART) neurons and indirectly in neuropeptide Y (NPT)/agouti-related peptide (AgRP)
amphetamine 16223 liraglutide-dependent weight loss relies on its binding to GLP-1Rs located mainly in POMC/CART (cocaine- and amphetamine -regulated transcript) anorexigenic neurons in the ARC, but an indirect inhibitory effect of agouti-related
dulaglutide 22924 effects directly in the CNS raise the question of whether GLP-1RAs of higher molecular weights, such as dulaglutide and albiglutide, would be as effective as liraglutide in promoting weight loss [[23]].A phase III, randomized,
dulaglutide 23156 double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, which was open-label for the comparator liraglutide group, evaluated dulaglutide monotherapy (0.75 mg) versus placebo versus once-daily liraglutide in individuals with T2DM. Despite
dulaglutide 23328 liraglutide in individuals with T2DM. Despite the positive results regarding glycemic control, in which dulaglutide was superior to placebo and non-inferior to liraglutide, there was no significant weight loss in any
dulaglutide 23763 [[44]].Another phase III, randomized, open-label, non-inferiority, head-to-head trial, AWARD-6, evaluated dulaglutide (1.5 mg) versus liraglutide (1.8 mg) in patients with T2DM. The once-weekly dose of dulaglutide was
dulaglutide 23861 evaluated dulaglutide (1.5 mg) versus liraglutide (1.8 mg) in patients with T2DM. The once-weekly dose of dulaglutide was non-inferior to once-daily liraglutide in relation to glycemic control. There was significant weight
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 1325 Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) have increasingly been used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus . One compound (liraglutide) was recently approved for the treatment of obesity. Although most studies
diabetes mellitus 2858 (GLP-1) has been highlighted because of the success of its recent clinical use in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and obesity [[2]]. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling contributes to increased glucose-dependent insulin
diabetes mellitus 8821 degradation, have longer half-lives, and have been developed for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [[15]]. More recently, they have been used for the treatment of obesity [[16]]. Among the GLP-1RAs,
diabetes mellitus 10780 Table 2.Table 1Glucagon-like peptide-1-based therapies available on the market for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and obesityGLP-1-based therapiesUsual doseShort-acting GLP-1RAs Exenatide twice daily5.0 µg/10.0 µg
diabetes mellitus 29774 polypeptide, GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1, GLP-1RA glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus , [(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-PET/CT [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose–positron emission tomography/computed
hypoglycemia 11639 effectsClinical benefits/commentsPancreatic effects ↑ Insulin and ↓ glucagon secretion (not during hypoglycemia )There is robust evidence of enhancement of β cell function [[63]–[66]] ↑ β cell proliferation
obesity 442 the hypothalamic nuclei explains some of the constraints involved in the prevention and treatment of obesity . Two major neuronal populations present in the arcuate nucleus control caloric intake and energy expenditure:
obesity 1211 generates resistance to the anorexigenic hormones leptin and insulin, contributing to the genesis of obesity . Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) have increasingly been used to treat type
obesity 1414 treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. One compound (liraglutide) was recently approved for the treatment of obesity . Although most studies suggest that GLP-1RAs promote weight loss mainly due to their inhibitory effect
obesity 2499 tissue in humans.Subcutaneously administered GLP-1RA have established efficacy in the treatment of obesity in adult patients.IntroductionIntestinal hormones have become an important therapeutic target in the
obesity 2622 patients.IntroductionIntestinal hormones have become an important therapeutic target in the management of obesity due to their involvement in energy homeostasis and satiety [[1]]. Among the intestinal L cell peptides,
obesity 2880 highlighted because of the success of its recent clinical use in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and obesity [[2]]. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling contributes to increased glucose-dependent insulin secretion,
obesity 6451 regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis, translating this knowledge into more efficient therapies for obesity has proved challenging. Most effort has been directed towards development of anorexigenic drugs [[9]];
obesity 8910 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [[15]]. More recently, they have been used for the treatment of obesity [[16]]. Among the GLP-1RAs, exenatide is the synthetic version of exendin-4, a molecule identified in
obesity 10802 Table 2.Table 1Glucagon-like peptide-1-based therapies available on the market for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and obesity GLP-1-based therapiesUsual doseShort-acting GLP-1RAs Exenatide twice daily5.0 µg/10.0 µg [[57]] Lixisenatide
obesity 30950 promotes relevant weight loss led to the approval of the daily dose of 3.0 mg for the treatment of obesity [[16]]. The efficacy of liraglutide 3.0 mg was evaluated in T2DM patients with a body mass index (BMI)
type 2 diabetes mellitus 1318 obesity. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) have increasingly been used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus . One compound (liraglutide) was recently approved for the treatment of obesity. Although most studies
type 2 diabetes mellitus 8814 DPP-4 degradation, have longer half-lives, and have been developed for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [[15]]. More recently, they have been used for the treatment of obesity [[16]]. Among the GLP-1RAs,
type 2 diabetes mellitus 29767 polypeptide, GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1, GLP-1RA glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus , [(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-PET/CT [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose–positron emission tomography/computed

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