Treatment of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)/Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS): Novel Advances in the Management of Hyperglycemic Crises (UK Versus USA).

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Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
diabetic ketoacidosis 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 6 endocrinologydiseases
hypoglycemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
sodium chloride 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
sodium chloride 9835 of the blood gas analysis, nor reports of electrolyte concentrations. In addition, the use of 0.9% sodium chloride solution can cause a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, and the persistent rise in serum chloride can
sodium chloride 13153 primary treatment should be fluid replacement and that the initial fluid replacement of choice is 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The rates of fluid replacement are similar—the US document advocating 15–20 mL/kg/h (1–1.5 L)
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 6817 DKAUKUSAMildModerateSevere“D”—a glucose concentration>11.0 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) or a previous history of diabetes mellitus >13.9 mmol/L (>250 mg/dL)>13.9 mmol/L (>250 mg/dL)>13.9 mmol/L (>250 mg/dL)“K”—the presence
diabetic ketoacidosis 2921 hypoglycemia.In 1945, Howard Root in Boston described how they had improved the outcomes for people with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), reducing mortality to 12% by 1940 and to 1.6% by 1945 using high doses of insulin—giving an
hyperglycemia 2765 to use this new wonder drug, e.g., how much to give and how often to give it, in order to treat the hyperglycemia without raising the inherent risk of hypoglycemia.In 1945, Howard Root in Boston described how they
hyperglycemia 14161 new evidence to show that the continued use of long-acting basal insulin helps to prevent the rebound hyperglycemia seen when the intravenous insulin is stopped [[]].US PerspectiveThe grading of the severity of DKA directly
hyperglycemia 16357 case, several authors described diabetic coma in which polydipsia and polyuria were accompanied by hyperglycemia but without the characteristic Kussmaul breathing seen in DKA [[]–[]]. Unlike patients with DKA, there
hyperglycemia 16689 HHS was not fully described till the 1950s [[], []]. In these papers, the authors reported the severe hyperglycemia accompanied by osmotic diuresis but without ketonuria. They also suggested measurement of electrolytes
hyperglycemia 18637 (540 mg/dL), and the ADA consensus statement suggests a cutoff >33.3 mmol/L (600 mg/dL). In addition to hyperglycemia , patients with HHS present with severe dehydration due to the chronic nature of hyperglycemia. Although
hyperglycemia 18731 addition to hyperglycemia, patients with HHS present with severe dehydration due to the chronic nature of hyperglycemia . Although there are a subset of patients that present with both DKA and HHS, both groups suggest making
hypoglycemia 2816 and how often to give it, in order to treat the hyperglycemia without raising the inherent risk of hypoglycemia .In 1945, Howard Root in Boston described how they had improved the outcomes for people with diabetic

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