The link between obesity and migraine in childhood: a systematic review.

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diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperinsulinemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 1 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 44 endocrinologydiseases

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diabetes mellitus 1648 developing chronic diseases with a marked personally impact and high healthcare costs [[2]].Type 2 diabetes mellitus , dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, hyperandrogenemia with hyperinsulinemia and consequent polycystic
hyperinsulinemia 1724 healthcare costs [[2]].Type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, hyperandrogenemia with hyperinsulinemia and consequent polycystic ovary disease, high systolic blood pressure, proteinuria, nonalcoholic fatty
metabolic syndrome 1681 a marked personally impact and high healthcare costs [[2]].Type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome , hyperandrogenemia with hyperinsulinemia and consequent polycystic ovary disease, high systolic blood
obesity 53 Title: Italian Journal of PediatricsThe link between obesity and migraine in childhood: a systematic reviewG. FarelloP. FerraraA. AntenucciC. BastiA. VerrottiPublication
obesity 446 children and they are associated with a strong personal and social impact. Many studies suggest that obesity is comorbid with headache in general, and migraine in particular and obesity seems to be a risk factor
obesity 523 Many studies suggest that obesity is comorbid with headache in general, and migraine in particular and obesity seems to be a risk factor for migraine progression and for migraine frequency both in adults and in
obesity 1072 and leptin could explain the common pathogenesis. In this paper we discussed the association between obesity and migraine through the analysis of the most recent studies in children and we reviewed data from literature
obesity 1233 studies in children and we reviewed data from literature in order to assess the association between obesity and headache and to clarify the possible common pathogenic mechanisms.BackgroundObesity and headache
obesity 1966 orthopedic pathologies, pseudotumor cerebri and depression are just some of the conditions associated with obesity [[3]]. In addition, recent researches suggest a role of obesity on migraine outcomes [[1], [4]]. In
obesity 2030 some of the conditions associated with obesity [[3]]. In addition, recent researches suggest a role of obesity on migraine outcomes [[1], [4]]. In fact, the link between obesity and headache seems to be relatively
obesity 2097 recent researches suggest a role of obesity on migraine outcomes [[1], [4]]. In fact, the link between obesity and headache seems to be relatively specific only for migraine [[5]] and studies in adults and children
obesity 2221 seems to be relatively specific only for migraine [[5]] and studies in adults and children showed that obesity is a risk factor for migraine progression and for migraine frequency both in adults [[6]–[9]] and
obesity 2386 migraine frequency both in adults [[6]–[9]] and in children [[10]–[12]]. The link between migraine and obesity is multifactorial: inflammatory mediators such as the calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP), neurotransmitters
obesity 2935 important therapeutic strategy [[14]].The aim of this review is to discuss the association between obesity and migraine through the analysis of the most recent studies in children and to explore the potential
obesity 3162 weight-loss in the treatment of migraine.Obesity: definition and prevalenceWorld Health Organization defines obesity and overweight as clinical conditions characterized by excessive body weight and associated with increased
obesity 3432 ratio between body weight (in kg) and height (in m2) and is universally used to define the degree of obesity . For adults, a BMI of 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2 is defined as overweight and a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or higher
obesity 3865 using data from the 1997 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) (from 1 to 24 years) and defines obesity as a BMI >2 SD from the mean of the WHO reference population for children aged between 5 and 19 years.
obesity 4020 reference population for children aged between 5 and 19 years. For children under 5 years, WHO defines obesity as a weight-for-height greater than three standard deviations above the WHO Child Growth Standards median
obesity 4335 States, Great Britain, Holland, and Singapore and are an extrapolation of the adult BMI cutoff points for obesity (30 kg/m2) [[17]].Because pediatric cutoffs vary by age, sex and racial differences in adipose tissue,
obesity 4659 according to Italian charts, overweight is defined as a BMI ≥85th percentile for sex and age, and obesity is defined as a BMI ≥95th percentile for sex and age [[18]].BMI is an indicator related to total
obesity 4944 abdominal fat mass, is more strictly associated with an increased risk of several pathological states; so, obesity should be most accurately estimated by demonstration of an increase in abdominal fat mass using direct
obesity 5346 expensive; among indirect measurements, waist circumference is frequently used in diagnosis of abdominal obesity in pediatric population by reporting the values as percentile calculated on tables representing normal
obesity 5620 epidemic proportions representing a really social and health emergency. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is steadily increasing among adolescents and children and it is estimated that approximately 41 million
obesity 5858 five are overweight or obese In addition, about 2–8% of the overall costs for health is linked to obesity and the size of the problem in the USA is double compared to Europe, although the rate of increase in
obesity 6811 pain usually emerges in late adolescence and migraine headache is usually frontotemporal [[21]].As obesity , headache is very common in childhood. In children under 10 years old, headache prevalence has been
obesity 7128 prevalence of headache increases and girls have 53% higher odds of headache than boys [[23]].Migraine and obesity : pathophysiological mechanismsA direct association between obesity and migraine has not been completely
obesity 7195 headache than boys [[23]].Migraine and obesity: pathophysiological mechanismsA direct association between obesity and migraine has not been completely understood but it is likely to be multifactorial, related on both
obesity 11267 humans, CGRP has been reported elevated in conditions where inflammation is implicated [[45]]. Since obesity is related to a chronic inflammation too, it is plausible that chronically elevated circulating levels
obesity 13215 show an anti-inflammatory activity by reducing IL-6 levels [[7]]. ADP and its multimers correlate with obesity status, showing inverse correlation with BMI, with insulin sensitivity and serum lipids [[54]] and are
obesity 14335 with satiety and obese individuals exhibit high circulating levels, suggesting leptin resistance in obesity [[61]]. Furthermore, leptin is implicated in the modulation of inflammation and pain, but studies evaluating
obesity 15367 patterns implicated in migraine attacks pathogenesis.Pediatric studies evaluating the association between obesity and migraineMany studies have been performed on adults in order to evaluate the association between
obesity 15475 and migraineMany studies have been performed on adults in order to evaluate the association between obesity and migraine, on the contrary, only few papers suggesting an association between obesity and migraine
obesity 15564 association between obesity and migraine, on the contrary, only few papers suggesting an association between obesity and migraine in the pediatric population have been published (Table 1). The first study, that specifically
obesity 15862 study were evaluated 273 children and adolescents and was found an association between migraine and obesity according to the evidence that the prevalence of episodic migraine was of 2.5% in normal weight children,
obesity 16113 8.9% in obese children [[12]].Table 1Results of pediatric studies evaluating the association between obesity and headacheReferenceClinical study designNumber of patientsAge (average age or range)SexSample populationFindingsPinhas
obesity 18920 Obesity Task Force, 2000, Cole TJ et al. establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ 2000;320:1240–43. Overweight is defined as the BMI with respect
obesity 19260 with respect to age and sex that correlates to BMI of 30 at 18-y-old (adult cut-off in widest use for obesity )An increase in the frequency of migraine in obese children compared with normal-weight children was
obesity 19440 normal-weight children was also underlined by Kinik et al., who investigated even the influence of obesity on the severity of migraine in 124 children. The number and the duration of attacks, pain severity and
obesity 20290 therapeutic strategy [[66]].These data were confirmed by Ravid et al., who showed a higher prevalence of obesity , compared with the general population, in a group of 181 children with headaches. This paper evaluated
obesity 20425 population, in a group of 181 children with headaches. This paper evaluated the association between obesity and generally headache and also the association between obesity and migraine specifically. The results
obesity 20489 paper evaluated the association between obesity and generally headache and also the association between obesity and migraine specifically. The results showed that migraine was more prevalent in obese and overweight
obesity 21276 obese population [[68]].ConclusionsPediatric studies analyzed in this review confirm that migraine and obesity represent two major public health problems and research is consistent in supporting higher frequency
obesity 21518 among obese children with migraine than in lean controls.Adult studies show an associations between obesity and migraine, influenced by age, gender, and lifestyle factors; in pediatric population there is a recurring
obesity 21885 girls.Studies evaluating the prevalence of overweight in migraineurs children underline a higher prevalence of obesity in these subjects than in the general population.However, the link between migraine and obesity is complex
obesity 21981 of obesity in these subjects than in the general population.However, the link between migraine and obesity is complex and still unclear, as the two conditions share some pathogenic determinants and may influence
obesity 22955 subjects, through BMI correction, may reduce frequency of migraine attacks.In conclusion, the link between obesity and migraine is complex and involves both central and peripheral pathways, but obesity and migraine
obesity 23042 link between obesity and migraine is complex and involves both central and peripheral pathways, but obesity and migraine are also both influenced by sedentary lifestyle factors.These evidences have important

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