Endothelial Microparticles Act as Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Biomarkers of Diabetes and Its Complications: A Literature Review

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
Bevacizumab 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hyperlipidemia 5 endocrinologydiseases
hypertriglyceridemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
pioglitazone 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
type 2 diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
diabetic retinopathy 3 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 5 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 2 endocrinologydiseases
metformin 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
obesity 2 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Bevacizumab 16031 complicated with retinopathy, and CD144+ EMP concentration differs significantly from the plasma levels. Bevacizumab therapy significantly reduces intravitreous CD144+ EMP levels in DM patients with retinopathy, a finding
metformin 19676 illustrated in Table 4, pioglitazone effectively reduced the plasma level of CD31+ EMPs compared with metformin and significantly improved the risk factors for CAD in T2DM patients. In addition, a decrease in the
metformin 24260 macroangiopathy than in DM patients with microangiopathy and no complications[[40]]CD31+T2DM(1) Compared with metformin , pioglitazone treatment improved the imbalance between endothelial damage and repair capacity and led
pioglitazone 19598 following treatment with insulin, sulfonylurea, biguanide, or thiazolidinedione. As illustrated in Table 4, pioglitazone effectively reduced the plasma level of CD31+ EMPs compared with metformin and significantly improved
pioglitazone 24271 in DM patients with microangiopathy and no complications[[40]]CD31+T2DM(1) Compared with metformin, pioglitazone treatment improved the imbalance between endothelial damage and repair capacity and led to more favourable
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 8893 patients with DM, even in well-controlled disease without complications and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [[29], [33], [34]]. In addition, patients with DM accompanied by hypertension, hyperlipidemia,
diabetic retinopathy 9106 hyperlipidemia, stable coronary disease, angina with or without symptomatic episodes, myocardial infarction, diabetic retinopathy , and nephropathy have significantly increased levels of procoagulant MPs compared with those without
diabetic retinopathy 9867 Angiogenesis may be either suppressed as in the late stages of diabetic nephropathy or elevated as in diabetic retinopathy . These conditions are characterized by impaired endothelial function and increased number of circulating
diabetic retinopathy 26559 control], P = 0.002[[20]]DM(2) CD105+ EMPs may play a critical role in the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy [[57]]CD106+DMCD106+ EMPs: 4939 to 740 × 103/μL [DM versus control], P = 0.001[[20]]CD144+DM(1) CD144+
hyperglycemia 2021 vascular diseases. 1. IntroductionDiabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and long-term disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism inducing chronic progressive
hyperglycemia 3047 diminished quality of life and even death. Common risk factors for DM-related vascular disease include hyperglycemia , insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation, hypercoagulability, hypertension, and atherosclerosis.
hyperglycemia 5408 (HUVECs) in vitro following stimulation by tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) [[24]]. Subsequently, hyperglycemia , bacterial lipopolysaccharide, thrombin, C-reactive protein, active oxygen cluster, and urea were shown
hyperglycemia 6077 circulating EMPs resulting in vascular dysfunction [[27]]. MPs derived from endothelial cells under hyperglycemia induce atherogenesis, angiogenesis, and other complications [[9], [28]].2.2. Characteristics of EMPsThe
hyperglycemia 19041 miR-26a, respectively. Finally, consistent with our clinical results, in vitro studies suggest that hyperglycemia reduces the assembly of miR-126 and miR-26a into EMPs [[28], [49]]. These findings suggest that miRNA
hyperlipidemia 8997 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [[29], [33], [34]]. In addition, patients with DM accompanied by hypertension, hyperlipidemia , stable coronary disease, angina with or without symptomatic episodes, myocardial infarction, diabetic
hyperlipidemia 20769 Simvastatin significantly decreased the level of plasma EMPs in T2DM patients with hypertension and hyperlipidemia at a dose of 10 mg/d for 24 weeks [[51]].The study found that the level of plasma EMPs was decreased
hyperlipidemia 20921 [[51]].The study found that the level of plasma EMPs was decreased significantly in DM patients with hyperlipidemia and high angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) level (Ang-2 ≥ 3.6 ng/mL) after 6 months of eicosapentaenoic acid
hyperlipidemia 27547 hypertensionDecrease[[51]]AntiatherosclerosisSimvastatinHUVECIncrease[[60]]Simvastatin + losartanT2DM with hyperlipidemia and hypertensionDecrease[[51]]Eicosapentaenoic acidT2DM with hyperlipidemiaDecrease[[52]]Vitamin CT2DM
hyperlipidemia 27623 hypertensionDecrease[[51]]AntiatherosclerosisSimvastatinHUVECIncrease[[60]]Simvastatin + losartanT2DM with hyperlipidemia and hypertensionDecrease[[51]]Eicosapentaenoic acidT2DM with hyperlipidemia Decrease[[52]]Vitamin CT2DM with acute myocardial infarctionDecrease[[33]]AntihyperglycemicPioglitazoneT2DMDecrease[[34]
hypertriglyceridemia 10362 levels of EMPs are significantly elevated in patients diagnosed with DM [[20]], hypertension [[38]], hypertriglyceridemia , acute coronary artery syndrome [[39]], and peripheral vascular diseases [[19]]. Therefore, assessment
metabolic syndrome 17270 [46]].3.6. DM and Metabolic SyndromeDespite similarities, the EMP profile is different between DM and metabolic syndrome . Compared with non-DM metabolic syndrome, the plasma percentage of combined CD62E+ and CD31+ EMPs was
metabolic syndrome 17311 similarities, the EMP profile is different between DM and metabolic syndrome. Compared with non-DM metabolic syndrome , the plasma percentage of combined CD62E+ and CD31+ EMPs was significantly downregulated in T2DM, suggesting
obesity 594 vascular diseases attract increased attention due to their high morbidity and mortality. The incidence of obesity , atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and dyslipidemia is significantly higher in
obesity 2516 and the prevalence is expected to rise to 592 million by 2035 [[3]]. In addition, the incidence of obesity [[4]], atherosclerosis [[5]], coronary heart disease (CAD) [[6]], hypertension [[7], [8]], and dyslipidemia
type 2 diabetes mellitus 8886 increased in patients with DM, even in well-controlled disease without complications and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [[29], [33], [34]]. In addition, patients with DM accompanied by hypertension, hyperlipidemia,

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