Diabetes mellitus and the skin

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Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
metformin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
myxedema 1 endocrinologydiseases
niacin 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
niacinamide 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
adrenal insufficiency 2 endocrinologydiseases
diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperinsulinemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
hypogonadism 1 endocrinologydiseases
thyroiditis 2 endocrinologydiseases
diabetic foot 4 endocrinologydiseases
glucose intolerance 1 endocrinologydiseases
porphyria cutanea tarda 1 endocrinologydiseases
porphyria 2 endocrinologydiseases
amyloidosis 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 2 endocrinologydiseases
hypertriglyceridemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 3 endocrinologydiseases
diabetic neuropathy 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperparathyroidism 1 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 2 endocrinologydiseases

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Having read the paper, please pick a pair of statements from the paper to indicate that a drug and disease are related.

Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
metformin 2989 neck, areolas, umbilicus and elbows. Topical treatment using emollients with basis of urea and oral metformin can be used (due to insulin resistance), but the only effective measures are weight loss and physical exercises,
niacin 2625 School, UNESPThe disease may also be associated with certain malignancies such as gastric cancer and high doses of niacin amide, but in most cases the patient has also type A insulin resistance, although adrenal and thyroid
niacin 21399 high-dose topical steroids, intralesional injection of corticosteroids, PUVA, cryotherapy, or drugs such as niacin amide, infliximab, dapsone and topical calcineurin inhibitors. [69],[70] Oral isotretinoin can be effective
niacinamide 2625 School, UNESPThe disease may also be associated with certain malignancies such as gastric cancer and high doses of niacinamide , but in most cases the patient has also type A insulin resistance, although adrenal and thyroid disease
niacinamide 21399 high-dose topical steroids, intralesional injection of corticosteroids, PUVA, cryotherapy, or drugs such as niacinamide , infliximab, dapsone and topical calcineurin inhibitors. [69],[70] Oral isotretinoin can be effective
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
adrenal insufficiency 34920 can coexist with other disorders of autoimmune etiology, especially hormonal disorders (thyroiditis, adrenal insufficiency and hipoparatathyreoidism) as part of the polyglandular autoimmune syndrome whose clinical manifestations
adrenal insufficiency 35156 appear in four different ways. The type 1 is the most common (1:20,000 individuals) and progresses with adrenal insufficiency , thyroiditis and type 1 DM, as well as atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, alopecia areata, celiac
amyloidosis 14925 years and may be at increased risk for multiple myeloma, being associated with other diseases such as amyloidosis , rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, primary hyperparathyroidism,
diabetes mellitus 581 (epub-ppub): /2017Publication date (ppub): /2017AbstractSeveral dermatoses are routinely associated with diabetes mellitus , especially in patients with chronic disease. This relationship can be easily proven in some skin disorders,
diabetic foot 27736 prevention of secondary infection with systemic antibiotics and dressings. [82],[91],[92]DIABETIC FOOTThe diabetic foot is a complex and disabling entity, caused by various factors, and it should be treated by various specialties
diabetic foot 28055 burdens patients’ quality of life, public health system and social security.Classically, the so-called diabetic foot is a chronic ulcer that evolves after trauma or over a callus caused by changes in points with altered
diabetic foot 28795 underlying immunosuppression of the disease, hyperkeratotic borders and sometimes ischemia. In the US, the diabetic foot is responsible for 70% of lower limb amputations annually. [4],[94]The treatment is performed according
diabetic foot 29389 approach and systemic antibiotics should be evaluated in all cases.There are specific guidelines to manage diabetic foot in a multidisciplinary approach that surpass the scope of this text. [95]MISCELLANEOUSAn ichthyosiform
diabetic neuropathy 28420 9Diabetic foot may present a chronic ulcer on callus caused by changes in sensitivity associated with diabetic neuropathy and occasional ischemiaPhoto: Department of Dermatology, Botucatu Medical School, UNESPThe causes can
glucose intolerance 22345 non-diabetic subjects.[73],[74] Over the years, however, about 90% of these will develop some degree of glucose intolerance or at least will present a positive family history for diabetes.[75],[76],[77] These facts suggest that
hyperglycemia 22983 patients.[75]The glycated hemoglobin levels were not associated with the appearance of lesions, indicating that hyperglycemia is not necessary for the development of NL. Among yuastdua diabetes, type 1 patients have the earliest
hyperglycemia 30075 usually reflects poor glycemic control and is associated to peripheral neuropathy. In these patients, hyperglycemia can lead to a change in the microcirculation. It becomes clinically evident by facial venous dilatation.
hyperinsulinemia 2067 mainly in the folds, especially in the armpits (Figure 1). Currently, it is postulated that is caused by hyperinsulinemia , which promotes the synthesis of type 1 insulin growth factor (IGF1) that leads to epidermal acanthosis.[2]
hyperparathyroidism 15016 such as amyloidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, primary hyperparathyroidism , pituitary adenoma and adrenocortical disease. [40],[44],[49],[50]Type 3 - associated to diabetes, which
hypertriglyceridemia 31325 lifethreating disorder leading to acute pancreatitis that can be quickly resolved with proper correction of hypertriglyceridemia .[83]Diabetes causes several changes in immunologic system, but especially the decrease in leukocyte
hypogonadism 35311 well as atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, alopecia areata, celiac disease, myasthenia gravis and hypogonadism .[97],[98] So, when diagnosing vitiligo, physicians should be alert to the emergence of other autoimmune
metabolic syndrome 2828 thyroid disease may be associated.[3]-[5]In obese patients, AN seems to evolve in association with the metabolic syndrome . The most affected sites are the armpits, neck, areolas, umbilicus and elbows. Topical treatment using
metabolic syndrome 37082 studies have evidenced the association of psoriasis with cardiovascular diseases and components of the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, obesity, dysglycemia or type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, fatty liver disease) and chronic kidney
metabolic syndrome 37483 population.[115]Several theories were hypothesized to associate the concurrence of the components of metabolic syndrome , premature atherosclerosis and psoriasis. One of these suggests that common inflammatory pathways are
myxedema 16231 resonance.[58]Clinically, the differential diagnosis must be established with scleroderma, eosinophilic fasciitis and sclero myxedema .[59]In SAB, the main mechanism of accumulation of extracellular matrix components appears to be represented
obesity 1404 physical activity, and changes in other lifestyle patterns, in addition to the increasing rates of obesity contributes to the greater prevalence of DM.Besides the severe renal, vascular and ophthalmic complications,
obesity 37116 association of psoriasis with cardiovascular diseases and components of the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, obesity , dysglycemia or type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, fatty liver disease) and chronic kidney disease.[107],[110]
porphyria 5923 sun exposure and markedly tanned skin. It affects feet, legs and arms and must be distinguished from porphyria cutanea tarda.[18]The differential diagnosis includes pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid, contact dermatitis,
porphyria 6149 bites, epidermolysis bullosa, blisters by trauma, burns, bullous erysipelas, bullous drug eruptions and porphyria cutanea tarda.[8],[9],[19]DIABETIC DERMOPATHYDiabetic dermopathy (DD) is the most common specific skin
porphyria cutanea tarda 6149 bites, epidermolysis bullosa, blisters by trauma, burns, bullous erysipelas, bullous drug eruptions and porphyria cutanea tarda .[8],[9],[19]DIABETIC DERMOPATHYDiabetic dermopathy (DD) is the most common specific skin lesion in patients
thyroiditis 34907 skin.[96],[99]Vitiligo can coexist with other disorders of autoimmune etiology, especially hormonal disorders ( thyroiditis , adrenal insufficiency and hipoparatathyreoidism) as part of the polyglandular autoimmune syndrome whose
thyroiditis 35179 ways. The type 1 is the most common (1:20,000 individuals) and progresses with adrenal insufficiency, thyroiditis and type 1 DM, as well as atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, alopecia areata, celiac disease, myasthenia gravis

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