Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation

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Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
metformin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
vitamin B12 deficiency 3 endocrinologydiseases
folate deficiency 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperhomocysteinemia 2 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
metformin 39706 diet can inhibit the Cbl endocytosis mechanism in the distal ileum [[161]]. It was proposed that the metformin pharmacological treatment can alter the Ca-dependent uptake absorption of Cbl [[162]]. There are some
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
folate deficiency 23875 the high intake of vegetables in a vegetarian diet, it is unlikely that a rise of HCY is dependent on folate deficiency . It is likely that in fortification areas, where flour is enriched with folic acid, the main reason
hyperhomocysteinemia 24320 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), the cutoffs for the diagnosis of hyperhomocysteinemia were defined as HCY above 11.4 μmol/L and 10.4 μmol for men and women, respectively [[101]]. The different
hyperhomocysteinemia 29438 risk [[54],[76],[103]]. In a qualitative and quantitative review of the literature, it emerged that hyperhomocysteinemia with or without Cbl hipovitaminosis is a compelling risk factor for dementia [[120]]. In a meta-analysis
vitamin B12 deficiency 52706 cobalamin displays other functions, not strictly metabolic, that could be lacking when deficient. A vitamin B12 deficiency could be related to oxidative stress markers like plasma glutathione, malondialdehyde and serum total
vitamin B12 deficiency 53857 μmol/LGermany[[91],[93]]>10 μmol/LGermany[[8]]nutrients-08-00767-t003_Table 3Table 3Methylmalonic acid values for vitamin B12 deficiency .ValueCountryReferences>260 nmol/LIndia[[81]]>271 nmol/LGermany/The Netherlands[[18],[84],[94]]>271 nmol/LGermany[[85],[93]]>271
vitamin B12 deficiency 54121 nmol/LGermany/Oman[[95]]>376 nmol/LUSA[[82]]nutrients-08-00767-t004_Table 4Table 4Herbert’s stratification for vitamin B12 deficiency [[72]].StageMarkersInterpretationIHTCIIBlood and cellular reserves reduced with low HTCIIIIHCLow concentrations

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