Endocrine Disruptors and Obesity.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
metabolic syndrome 1 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 28 endocrinologydiseases
testosterone 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
testosterone 5516 female fish [[]]. TBT can inhibit aromatase, which is the enzyme responsible for the conversion of testosterone into estrogens [[], []].Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic non-steroidal oestrogen that was first
testosterone 19130 synthesis, and the cytoplasm of adipocytes contains the cytochrome P450 enzyme aromatase which converts testosterone to oestrogens. Several EDCs are now known to be able to influence intracellular aromatase activity [[]]
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
metabolic syndrome 22407 weight through life, but has been established as an underlying risk factor for many diseases including metabolic syndrome [[]], diabetes [[]], cardiovascular disease [[]] and cancer [[]]. Coincidentally, development of many
obesity 1236 capacity for their own retention. This has the potential for a vicious spiral not only of increasing obesity but also increasing the retention of other lipophilic pollutant chemicals with an even broader range
obesity 1407 chemicals with an even broader range of adverse actions. This might offer an explanation as to why obesity is an underlying risk factor for so many diseases including cancer.IntroductionThe endocrine system
obesity 2366 control of adipose tissue functions can therefore also lead to inappropriate deposits of fat and, hence, obesity .Over recent years, many environmental chemicals have been shown to disrupt the actions of hormones and
obesity 2961 of adipocyte function, resulting in imbalances in the regulation of body weight, which can lead to obesity [[]•, []•, []•]. Such chemicals have been termed “obesogens” [[], []•]. Increase in obesity,
obesity 3065 obesity [[]•, []•, []•]. Such chemicals have been termed “obesogens” [[], []•]. Increase in obesity , defined as a body mass index of over 30 kg/m2, has become a global problem over recent decades. Over
obesity 3280 of adults are now obese in the UK and over 30% of adults are obese in the USA [[]•]. Furthermore, obesity in children is also increasing in westernised countries, and in the USA, around 20% of children aged
obesity 3736 account for the current disease trends. This review will present evidence that EDCs may contribute to obesity through interfering with the control of energy metabolism and adipose tissue regulation, causing an
obesity 3884 energy metabolism and adipose tissue regulation, causing an altered balance towards weight gain and obesity , despite normal diet and exercise patterns.Sources of Endocrine DisruptorsAn endocrine disruptor has
obesity 9114 tend to have been overemphasised compared with adverse effects, such as those potentially related to obesity .Developmental Susceptibility to Obesogenic EDCsAn especially sensitive time frame for exposure to obesogens
obesity 9762 DES-treated female mice: the mice were treated on days 1–5 of age with 1 μgDES/kg body weight/day, and obesity was evident by 4–6 months of age [[]]. This serves to demonstrate the obesogenic consequences of
obesity 10589 alkyl chains [[]].Fig. 2Exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) during the neonatal period predisposes to obesity in mice at 4–6 months of age. Reproduced from Newbold et al. [[]], with permission from ElsevierThe
obesity 10717 4–6 months of age. Reproduced from Newbold et al. [[]], with permission from ElsevierThe reported rise in obesity of children under 2 years of age [[], []] is also suggestive of alterations during development. It
obesity 11348 pregnancy have been found to have a low birth weight, but paradoxically to then be at increased risk of obesity [[]], and meta-analysis of multiple studies confirms that early-life exposure to some components of
obesity 11488 multiple studies confirms that early-life exposure to some components of tobacco smoke can lead to later obesity [[]]. A study of children in the Faroe Islands has shown that prenatal exposure to PCBs and DDE contained
obesity 12473 the F3 generation, although there was no further TBT exposure [[]•]. Other heritable traits towards obesity in rodents have been demonstrated following exposure to BPA and phthalates (diethylhexyl and dibutyl)
obesity 14700 can bind to these nuclear receptors have the potential to cause inappropriate responses, including obesity .Obesogens Acting through Interference with PPARsPPARs can bind a wide range of unsaturated fatty acids
obesity 16969 appears likely that any ligand which can bind to the PPARγ will be able to influence adipogenesis and obesity [[]]. Since so many of such ligands are present in human adipose tissue, it is probable that they may
obesity 18177 models [[]]. However, foetal or neonatal oestrogen exposure can have the opposite effect and lead to obesity later in life, which emphasises, again, that timing of exposure can be important in the consideration
obesity 18391 outcomes. Rodents treated with phytoestrogens during pregnancy or lactation were observed to develop obesity at puberty [[]], especially in males [[]], which might question the wisdom of consumption of soy-based
obesity 19373 indirectly to raise the intracellular levels of oestrogen in adipocytes with a consequent increase in obesity not only in women but also in men [[]].Obesogens Act through Aryl Hydrocarbon ReceptorsThe aryl hydrocarbon
obesity 21158 especially by altering appetite, satiety and food preferences. Although BPA has been shown to induce obesity in experimental studies [[]] and is present in over 90% of urine samples in the US population [[]],
obesity 22782 particular are known to bioaccumulate in body fat over the years. It is therefore plausible that the link of obesity to disease relates not just simply to the deposition of fat but to the increased retention of lipophilic
obesity 23934 indeed of other lipophilic environmental pollutant chemicals as wellAlthough such a mechanism may enable obesity to be associated with a greater body burden of obesogens, there are also many other lipophilic pollutant
obesity 27538 Assessment of Obesogenic EDCsThe weight of evidence pointing towards a role for EDCs in influencing obesity offers not just a mechanistic understanding of the obesity crisis but also a strategy for prevention.
obesity 27597 pointing towards a role for EDCs in influencing obesity offers not just a mechanistic understanding of the obesity crisis but also a strategy for prevention. Although, undoubtedly, overeating coupled with lack of exercise
obesity 27750 Although, undoubtedly, overeating coupled with lack of exercise is a major contributor to the rise in obesity , which can be resolved by reduced calorie intake and increased exercise, it may be that reduction in
obesity 27961 exposure to obesogenic EDCs, particularly during early life stages, could also contribute to reducing obesity in the population. This will require a political will to limit the use of some of the offending chemicals
obesity 28351 EDCs were originally developed for a range of beneficial uses, their potential for contributing to obesity needs now to be added into risk assessment of EDCs, and the widespread exposure of the human population

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