Phlorotannins: Towards New Pharmacological Interventions for Diabetes Mellitus Type 2.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
Insulin 5 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
acarbose 11 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 3 endocrinologydiseases
miglitol 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 21486 suitable for use in food and dietary supplements [[62]].3.2. Effects on Postprandial Hyperglycaemia and Insulin Levels In VivoEvidence suggests that postprandial hyperglycaemia constitutes an independent risk factor
Insulin 34795 tyrosine phosphorylation cascade, which is an integral part of the insulin signalling pathway [[75]]. Insulin receptor (IR) belongs to the class of tyrosine kinase receptors. Binding of insulin leads to structural
Insulin 58182 formation[[56]]MethanolTurbinaria ornata↓ AGEs formation[[56]]Methanol (80%)Ishige okamurae↓ Blood glucose levels↑ Insulin sensitivity[[58]]Water:acetonitrile (50:50 v/v)Ascophyllum nodosumα-Glucosidase inhibitionα-Amylase
Insulin 58638 vesiculosusα-Glucosidase inhibitionα-Amylase inhibition↓ Postprandial hyperglycaemia↓ Serum insulin↓ Insulin secretion↑ Insulin sensitivity[[61]]* AGEs: advanced glycation end-products; AR: aldose reductase;
Insulin 58659 inhibitionα-Amylase inhibition↓ Postprandial hyperglycaemia↓ Serum insulin↓ Insulin secretion↑ Insulin sensitivity[[61]]* AGEs: advanced glycation end-products; AR: aldose reductase; G6P: glucose-6-phosphatase
acarbose 12911 the blockage of digestive enzymes: miglitol and voglibose are both α-glucosidase inhibitors, whereas acarbose is a dual α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitor [[26],[27],[28]]. α-Glucosidase inhibitors act by
acarbose 15204 µM), were the most efficient compounds against α-glucosidase, being stronger than the reference drug, acarbose . Interestingly, and contrary to what happened in the study undertaken by Lee et al. [[29]], these authors
acarbose 15366 study undertaken by Lee et al. [[29]], these authors reported that dieckol acted competitively with acarbose [[34]].The explanation for the succeeded may lay in the methodology used for determining the kind of
acarbose 16840 and 472.7 µM, respectively. Both isolated compounds were more effective against α-glucosidase than acarbose (IC50 = 51.65 µM) [[40]]. Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC) (Figure 3), isolated from Ishige okamurae
acarbose 17624 mg/mL) and α-amylase (IC50 = 0.25 mg/mL) in a dose dependent manner, though not as strong as that of acarbose (IC50 = 1.74 and 0.06 mg/mL, respectively). The IC50 found for the forming unit, phloroglucinol was
acarbose 18370 Spatoglossum asperum displayed inhibitory activity for both enzymes, with an IC50 similar to those found for acarbose [[57]].It seems obvious that the solvent used in the extraction process influences the bioactivity,
acarbose 19911 verified that the tannins-rich fraction inhibited both enzymes and presented a synergistic effect with acarbose , which emphasizes the idea that phlorotannins do not only cause inhibition by acting at the enzymes’
acarbose 24611 mice. After overnight fasting, mice were administered orally soluble starch, alone or with DPHC or acarbose . The AUC of postprandial glucose levels of mice fed the phlorotannin was significant reduced face to
acarbose 24785 phlorotannin was significant reduced face to control (2022 face to 2210 mmol·min/L) and similar to those of acarbose (1964 mmol·min/L) [[41]]. Recently, PFF-A isolated from E. cava demonstrated ability to alleviate postprandial
acarbose 25325 phlorotannin was significant reduced face to control (2296 vs. 2690 mmol·min/L) and similar to those of acarbose (2231 mmol·min/L).Besides the isolated compounds, the ability of phlorotannin extracts to alleviate
acarbose 26016 Additionally, blood glucose levels of both normal and diabetic animals treated with phlorotannins and acarbose were similar. This hypoglycaemic effect was attributed to the inhibition of carbohydrate digesting enzymes,
miglitol 12844 on molecules able to slow down carbohydrates assimilation through the blockage of digestive enzymes: miglitol and voglibose are both α-glucosidase inhibitors, whereas acarbose is a dual α-glucosidase and α-amylase
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 2767 the time of diagnosis, being more accurate over time. Three general categories can be distinguished: diabetes mellitus type 1 (DMT1), diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Other specific
diabetes mellitus 2800 accurate over time. Three general categories can be distinguished: diabetes mellitus type 1 (DMT1), diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Other specific types of diabetes, such as impaired
diabetes mellitus 2848 be distinguished: diabetes mellitus type 1 (DMT1), diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Other specific types of diabetes, such as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting

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