Adipokines: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Vascular Dysfunction in Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
obesity 21 endocrinologydiseases
simvastatin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 2 endocrinologydiseases
fenofibrate 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
glucose intolerance 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
hypertriglyceridemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 1 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
fenofibrate 21545 such as losartan [[98]–[100]], and cholesterol/triglycerides lowering effect such as simvastatin or fenofibrate have been shown to increase adiponectin plasma levels in human and animal studies [[101]]. Fenofibrate
simvastatin 21530 blocking effect such as losartan [[98]–[100]], and cholesterol/triglycerides lowering effect such as simvastatin or fenofibrate have been shown to increase adiponectin plasma levels in human and animal studies [[101]].
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 1255 cytokines such as adiponectin, as well as vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules. In obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (DM), insulin resistance causes impairment of the endocrine function of the perivascular adipose tissue,
diabetes mellitus 2626 compared to those with a normal BMI, primarily due to vascular complications [[3]].Obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (DM) are linked because both are components of the so-called “metabolic syndrome (MS).” Metabolic
glucose intolerance 22734 active adiponectin receptor agonist “adipoRon” was proven to ameliorate insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in mice [[22], [107]]. An in vitro study has shown that osmotin, one of the pathogenesis related-5 (PR-5)
hyperglycemia 7339 uptake [[28], [29]]. In the liver, it inhibits both gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis, counteracting hyperglycemia and hepatic steatosis [[30], [31]]. Unlike most adipokines, adiponectin is inversely proportionate to
hypertriglyceridemia 21776 months markedly elevated plasma adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity in patients with primary hypertriglyceridemia [[101], [102]]. Moreover, high plasma levels of adiponectin were noticed in humans receiving dietary
metabolic syndrome 2708 [[3]].Obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (DM) are linked because both are components of the so-called “ metabolic syndrome (MS).” Metabolic syndrome is defined by the WHO as the presence of insulin resistance (IR) and any
obesity 1235 anti-inflammatory cytokines such as adiponectin, as well as vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules. In obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (DM), insulin resistance causes impairment of the endocrine function of
obesity 1841 Several reviews have discussed the potential of adipokines as therapeutic targets for type II DM and obesity ; however, this review is the first to focus on their therapeutic potential for vascular dysfunction
obesity 1967 review is the first to focus on their therapeutic potential for vascular dysfunction in type II DM and obesity . 1. IntroductionAccording to the World Health Organization (WHO) reports, obesity affects 1.1 billion
obesity 2049 in type II DM and obesity. 1. IntroductionAccording to the World Health Organization (WHO) reports, obesity affects 1.1 billion adult individuals worldwide, 300 millions of whom are clinically obese with a body
obesity 6198 [21]].Several reviews have discussed the potential of adipokines as therapeutic targets for type II DM and obesity [[22], [23]]; however, this review is the first to focus on their therapeutic potential for vascular
obesity 6337 review is the first to focus on their therapeutic potential for vascular dysfunction in type II DM and obesity . This article explores the vascular functions of different adipokines, how these functions are impaired
obesity 7469 steatosis [[30], [31]]. Unlike most adipokines, adiponectin is inversely proportionate to the degree of obesity , meaning that its concentration decreases when obesity becomes more severe and is restored when the
obesity 7524 is inversely proportionate to the degree of obesity, meaning that its concentration decreases when obesity becomes more severe and is restored when the body weight is reduced [[32]].In terms of vascular functions,
obesity 10553 through suppression of resistin-induced expression of adhesion molecules [[40]].Different mechanisms link obesity -associated hypertension to decreased levels of adiponectin including hyperactivity of the renin-angiotensin
obesity 11589 higher than other adipokines [[49]]. Elevated plasma levels of A-FABP can serve as a marker for several obesity -related metabolic abnormalities, endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and coronary
obesity 12249 serum levels of adiponectin. Built upon these findings, A-FABP is a proinflammatory cytokine that links obesity to vascular dysfunction.The expression of A-FABP in macrophages can be triggered by saturated free fatty
obesity 13406 showed a positive correlation between leptin levels and development of macrovascular complication of obesity such as myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke [[53], [54]]. A large prospective study on leptin
obesity 14387 leptin induces endothelial NO production with subsequent vasodilation [[58]]. However, in cases of obesity -associated hyperleptinemia, this vasodilatory effect is lost with subsequent development of hypertension.
obesity 14854 pressure in cases of hyperleptinemia [[59]]. Human leptin deficiency syndrome is associated with severe obesity and hypotension that can be explained by lack of its central effect on satiety centre and sympathetic
obesity 19240 factor (TF) in human coronary cells [[91]].2.7. Other AdipokinesAdipsin is a potential indicator of obesity in rodents. Although its role in energy homeostasis and systemic metabolism remains unknown, higher
obesity 19918 ligand of the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Elevated levels of apelin in obese mice reflect mild obesity -related inflammation, characterized by an increase in macrocytic count and high TNF-α levels. APE has
obesity 22095 from the medicinal herb Radix-Astragali) were shown to increase adiponectin plasma levels and reduce obesity -related insulin resistance [[104]].Direct pharmacological administration of adiponectin has been shown
obesity 23577 or developing receptor agonists that can mimic adiponectin effects is a possible strategy to treat obesity -related vascular diseases [[97]]. Recent studies have shown that exercise, associated with a hypocaloric
obesity 25555 inflammatory pathways is confirmed by the protective activity of some anti-inflammatory drugs against obesity -related insulin resistance [[118]]. Aspirin can suppress not only JNK [[119], [120]], but other serine/threonine
obesity 27936 [[126]]. The potential role of adipokine-based therapies for vascular dysfunction, type II DM, and obesity , as well as neuroinflammatory diseases should be advocated and shared with the public and practicing
obesity 29151 different adipokines and their roles as therapeutic targets for vascular dysfunction in type II DM and obesity .AdipokineVascular effectDiagnostic/therapeutic implicationsAdiponectin(i) Anti-inflammatory and endothelium-protective

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