High Mobility Group Box-1: A Missing Link between Diabetes and Its Complications

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
atorvastatin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hyperglycemia 5 endocrinologydiseases
metformin 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
acetylcysteine 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetic foot 1 endocrinologydiseases
diabetic retinopathy 4 endocrinologydiseases
simvastatin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
type 2 diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
diabetes mellitus 3 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
acetylcysteine 8012 experiment showed that high-glucose-induced HMGB-1 expression in tubular epithelial cells was reduced by N- acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant [[11]], suggesting that high glucose may lead to HMGB-1 expression via oxidative
atorvastatin 25281 pathway [[87]]. Besides, several other agents such as ethyl pyruvate [[81]], quercetin [[88]–[90]], atorvastatin [[91]], and simvastatin [[92]] were explored in various diseases by targeting HMGB-1; however, their
metformin 15238 vivo experiments showed that hyperglycemia-induced HMGB-1 was reversed by treatment of resveratrol or metformin , both of which were considered as antioxidants [[43], [45]]. In addition, cultured cardiomyocytes showed
metformin 23573 suppressed HMGB-1/TLRs in monocytes of type 1 diabetes patients [[26]]. An in vitro experiment showed that metformin protected hyperglycemia-induced cardiomyocytes injury via inhibition of HMGB-1/RAGE expression [[45]].Glycyrrhizin
simvastatin 25306 several other agents such as ethyl pyruvate [[81]], quercetin [[88]–[90]], atorvastatin [[91]], and simvastatin [[92]] were explored in various diseases by targeting HMGB-1; however, their protection effects in diabetes
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 13594 HMGB-1 was reported to be upregulated in fibroblasts, macrophages, and cardiomyocytes isolated from diabetes mellitus subjects [[47]]. Besides that, a clinical study showed increased serum HMGB-1 in heart failure patients
diabetes mellitus 28401 mediated hyperglycaemia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis.[[28]]CAD: coronary artery disease; T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus ; AMI: acute myocardial infarction; DM: diabetes mellitus; DCM: diabetic cardiomyopathy; TGF-1beta: transforming
diabetes mellitus 28458 apoptosis.[[28]]CAD: coronary artery disease; T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus; AMI: acute myocardial infarction; DM: diabetes mellitus ; DCM: diabetic cardiomyopathy; TGF-1beta: transforming growth factor-1beta; MMP2: matrix metalloproteinase-2;
diabetic foot 27702 injury.[[45]]Foot atherogenesisHMGB-1, VCAM, NF-κBHMGB-1-induced inflammation mediated pathogenesis of diabetic foot atherogenesis.[[46]]I/R injuryHMGB-1, RAGE, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6HG induced inflammatory response via
diabetic retinopathy 1593 advances in HMGB-1 in diabetes, diabetic cardiovascular complications, diabetic nephropathy (DN), and diabetic retinopathy (DR), and then we will focus on therapeutic strategies targeting HMGB-1.2. Introduction of HMGB-1We
diabetic retinopathy 21915 lymphangiogenesis via TLR4/NF-ΚB/MMP9 signaling pathway, indicating that HMGB-1 may play an important role in diabetic retinopathy by modulating MMP9 [[83]].Besides inflammation and angiogenesis, vascular permeability and neurodegeneration
diabetic retinopathy 22718 between serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and HMGB-1 was observed in proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients, and intravitreal administration of HMGB-1 induced decreased BDNF in rat retinas, suggesting
diabetic retinopathy 30537 connective tissue growth factor; AGE: advanced glycation end product; Ref.: references.Table 3HMGB-1 in DR ( diabetic retinopathy ).Pathological phenomenon(s)Related signal molecule(s)NotesRef.AngiogenesisHMGB-1, VEGF, sVE-cadherin,
hyperglycemia 1071 disease, which affects about 400 million people worldwide. It is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to defective insulin secretion or insulin resistance. Growing evidence on the involvement of inflammation
hyperglycemia 10090 initiation and development of DM (Figure 2).Taken together, not only is HMGB-1 released in response to hyperglycemia via oxidative stress in diabetes, but also it contributes to the progression of diabetes via inducing
hyperglycemia 13287 investigations indicated that HMGB-1 was diffusely expressed in myocardium of diabetic mice and in hyperglycemia -induced cardiomyocytes [[28], [43], [44]]. Wang et al. [[44]] found that high glucose could induce HMGB-1
hyperglycemia 15165 cell infiltration and TNF-α expression. Interestingly, in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that hyperglycemia -induced HMGB-1 was reversed by treatment of resveratrol or metformin, both of which were considered
hyperglycemia 23593 monocytes of type 1 diabetes patients [[26]]. An in vitro experiment showed that metformin protected hyperglycemia -induced cardiomyocytes injury via inhibition of HMGB-1/RAGE expression [[45]].Glycyrrhizin is a natural
type 2 diabetes mellitus 28394 Bax/Bcl-2HMGB-1 mediated hyperglycaemia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis.[[28]]CAD: coronary artery disease; T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus ; AMI: acute myocardial infarction; DM: diabetes mellitus; DCM: diabetic cardiomyopathy; TGF-1beta: transforming

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