Role of Vitamin D in Uremic Vascular Calcification.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
calciphylaxis 1 endocrinologydiseases
calcitriol 7 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
cholecalciferol 12 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
ergocalciferol 3 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hypercalcemia 13 endocrinologydiseases
hyperphosphatemia 9 endocrinologydiseases
paricalcitol 8 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
secondary hyperparathyroidism 5 endocrinologydiseases
calcifediol 4 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 6 endocrinologydiseases
hyperparathyroidism 10 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 3 endocrinologydiseases
vascular calcification 55 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
calcifediol 39740 Advantage of Native Vitamin D in CKDCompared with active vitamin D (calcitriol), 25-hydroxy vitamin D ( calcifediol ) has a longer plasma half-life and less potency, with fewer effects on hypercalcemia; thus, it has become
calcifediol 39986 D replacement in CKD patients. A previous study of the pharmacokinetics of oral cholecalciferol and calcifediol revealed that calcifediol given daily, weekly, or as a single bolus is approximately 2-3 times more
calcifediol 40012 patients. A previous study of the pharmacokinetics of oral cholecalciferol and calcifediol revealed that calcifediol given daily, weekly, or as a single bolus is approximately 2-3 times more potent in increasing plasma
calcifediol 40233 D3 concentrations than cholecalciferol is [[36]]. Recently, a modified-release oral formulation of calcifediol was designed to gradually raise serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D to minimize the induction of CYP24 (the cytochrome
calcitriol 4877 megalin receptor-mediated endocytosis [[6]]. Furthermore, 25(OH)D is converted to its active form, calcitriol , by 1-α-hydroxylase and transported by intracellular DBP3; thus, 1,25(OH)2D or 25(OH)D reenters the
calcitriol 5048 thus, 1,25(OH)2D or 25(OH)D reenters the circulation. Vitamin D receptor analogues (VDRAs), such as calcitriol , paricalcitol, and maxacalcitriol, directly act on the VDR [[7]].Vitamin D has pleiotropic effects on
calcitriol 5082 reenters the circulation. Vitamin D receptor analogues (VDRAs), such as calcitriol, paricalcitol, and maxa calcitriol , directly act on the VDR [[7]].Vitamin D has pleiotropic effects on immunity, the cardiovascular system,
calcitriol 8286 delivery of 25(OH)D to the renal tubules. The decreased renal uptake of 25(OH)D limits the formation of calcitriol . Because of GFR decline, the phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 is synthesized from
calcitriol 16643 from distal renal tubules decreases with decreasing 25(OH)D. In addition, indoxyl sulfate prevents the calcitriol -induced inhibition of parathyroid cell proliferation. PTH acts on PTH receptors on osteoblasts and drives
calcitriol 34074 populations in certain adult tissues. The potential mechanisms of cross-talk between Hh signaling and calcitriol -VDR signaling suggest a cooperative role during multiple stages of human development and diseases [[98]].
calcitriol 39705 therapeutic strategies.7.2. The Advantage of Native Vitamin D in CKDCompared with active vitamin D ( calcitriol ), 25-hydroxy vitamin D (calcifediol) has a longer plasma half-life and less potency, with fewer effects
cholecalciferol 4322 ultraviolet B radiation. Vitamin D from the diet, vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) or animal vitamin D3 ( cholecalciferol ), is identical to the skin-synthesized vitamin D3. The enzyme vitamin D 25-hydroxylase metabolizes ergocalciferol
cholecalciferol 4456 the skin-synthesized vitamin D3. The enzyme vitamin D 25-hydroxylase metabolizes ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol in the liver and converts them to the 25(OH)D forms of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3, respectively. 25(OH)D
cholecalciferol 36981 patients undergoing HD [[107]]. For nutritional vitamin D supplementation, a six-month course of oral cholecalciferol treatment was given to adult (age: 53.8 ± 17.3) long-term maintenance dialysis patients with vitamin
cholecalciferol 37120 adult (age: 53.8 ± 17.3) long-term maintenance dialysis patients with vitamin D insufficiency. The cholecalciferol replacement did not demonstrate an increased risk of hypercalcemia [[108]]. In the study of cardiovascular
cholecalciferol 37595 and of cardiac valve calcifications (0 versus 32%) was quite lower in the Berlin study (more use of cholecalciferol ) than in the Heidelberg one (less use of cholecalciferol), while the technique of evaluation was comparable.
cholecalciferol 37652 quite lower in the Berlin study (more use of cholecalciferol) than in the Heidelberg one (less use of cholecalciferol ), while the technique of evaluation was comparable. These findings suggest that nutritional vit-D supplement
cholecalciferol 38361 effects of nutritional vitamin D on patients with CKD and ESRD. Hewitt et al. [[113]] reported that cholecalciferol administered to patients with ESRD for more than 6 months reduced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b
cholecalciferol 38542 tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b but not the pulse-wave velocity. Kidir et al. reported that cholecalciferol improved arterial diastolic function in patients undergoing dialysis [[108]]. Since the mechanism of
cholecalciferol 39966 crucial agent for vitamin D replacement in CKD patients. A previous study of the pharmacokinetics of oral cholecalciferol and calcifediol revealed that calcifediol given daily, weekly, or as a single bolus is approximately
cholecalciferol 40157 single bolus is approximately 2-3 times more potent in increasing plasma 25 (OH) D3 concentrations than cholecalciferol is [[36]]. Recently, a modified-release oral formulation of calcifediol was designed to gradually raise
cholecalciferol 41032 1-α-hydroxylase activity to produce serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D even in ESRD [[117]]. We also had shown that cholecalciferol , in combination with paricalcitol, additively lowers the iPTH levels in a significant number of HD patients
cholecalciferol 41195 lowers the iPTH levels in a significant number of HD patients with SHPT. A dose of 5000 IU/week of cholecalciferol could maintain serum 25(OH)D3 levels above 30 ng/dL as early as 8 weeks after beginning supplementation
ergocalciferol 4284 converted to previtamin D3 upon exposure to ultraviolet B radiation. Vitamin D from the diet, vitamin D2 ( ergocalciferol ) or animal vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), is identical to the skin-synthesized vitamin D3. The enzyme
ergocalciferol 4437 (cholecalciferol), is identical to the skin-synthesized vitamin D3. The enzyme vitamin D 25-hydroxylase metabolizes ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol in the liver and converts them to the 25(OH)D forms of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3, respectively.
ergocalciferol 38114 associated with vascular calcification in in vivo and human studies [[111]]. Assimon et al. reported that ergocalciferol reduced the plasma concentration of adhesion molecules in patients undergoing HD [[112]]. Several clinical
paricalcitol 5060 1,25(OH)2D or 25(OH)D reenters the circulation. Vitamin D receptor analogues (VDRAs), such as calcitriol, paricalcitol , and maxacalcitriol, directly act on the VDR [[7]].Vitamin D has pleiotropic effects on immunity, the
paricalcitol 30262 common, and they are associated with further vascular calcification. Vitamin D derivatives, such as paricalcitol , are associated with a reduced incidence of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia and lower severity of
paricalcitol 32530 fetuin-A significantly increased in patients undergoing HD who were receiving alfacalcidol rather than paricalcitol [[93]]. In addition, in arteries of patients with CKD, VDRAs restored the mRNA expression of klotho.
paricalcitol 35614 study initiated in 2008 reported the effects of VDRAs in patients with CKD. Furthermore, 24 weeks of paricalcitol at a dosage of 1-2 μg/day alleviated proteinuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Serum alkaline
paricalcitol 35795 diabetic nephropathy. Serum alkaline phosphatase and intact PTH were reduced in patients receiving paricalcitol [[102]]. Thethi et al. reported that, in patients with diabetes mellitus having an eGFR between 15 and
paricalcitol 35956 patients with diabetes mellitus having an eGFR between 15 and 59 mL/min/1.73 m2, a daily supplement of paricalcitol did not improve brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation or nitroglycerine-mediated dilation [[103]].
paricalcitol 36188 double-blind RCTs (PRIMO and OPERA studies) in nondialysis CKD stages 3–5 patients active vitamin D ( paricalcitol ) failed to demonstrate the improvement in clinically cardiac outcome but did demonstrate an increased
paricalcitol 41069 levels of 1,25(OH)2D even in ESRD [[117]]. We also had shown that cholecalciferol, in combination with paricalcitol , additively lowers the iPTH levels in a significant number of HD patients with SHPT. A dose of 5000 IU/week
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
calciphylaxis 18571 early in the course of CKD, and it contributes to the genesis of SHPT [[45]]. In dialysis patients with calciphylaxis , hyperphosphatemia and calcium × phosphate product, but not PTH, were found to be risk factors in case-control
diabetes mellitus 12947 inflammation contribute to endothelial dysfunction and subsequent atherosclerosis. In patients with diabetes mellitus with preserved renal function, microalbuminuria, an indicator of endothelial dysfunction, predicts the
diabetes mellitus 13349 contributing to endothelial shearing stress change, such as RAAS aldosterone activation and hyperfiltration in diabetes mellitus , and chronic inflammation exacerbates insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome [[30], [31]]. With deteriorating
diabetes mellitus 22721 interface between normal tissues and the mineralized lesions of calcified arteries in patients with CKD or diabetes mellitus . Pyrophosphate, degraded by alkaline phosphatase on the bone lining cells, serves as inhibitors of vascular
diabetes mellitus 28298 endothelial stress and atherosclerotic plaque formation. Oh et al. reported that, in patients with diabetes mellitus , macrophages incubated with 1,25(OH)2D suppressed the formation of foamy cells by reducing acetylated
diabetes mellitus 28514 acetylated or oxidized LDL cholesterol uptake [[81]]. Riek et al. reported that monocytes in patients with diabetes mellitus tend to differentiate to M2 macrophages on incubation with 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3, and endoplasmic reticulum
diabetes mellitus 35863 were reduced in patients receiving paricalcitol [[102]]. Thethi et al. reported that, in patients with diabetes mellitus having an eGFR between 15 and 59 mL/min/1.73 m2, a daily supplement of paricalcitol did not improve
hypercalcemia 19292 does indoxyl sulfate [[49]]. In CKD, abnormal mineral metabolism, predominantly hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia , facilitates the progression of the active process of osteogenesis in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC)
hypercalcemia 30122 several derivatives reduce vascular calcification through anti-inflammatory effects [[86]]. However, hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia are common, and they are associated with further vascular calcification. Vitamin
hypercalcemia 30319 calcification. Vitamin D derivatives, such as paricalcitol, are associated with a reduced incidence of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia and lower severity of vascular calcification [[86], [87]]. Nutritional vitamin
hypercalcemia 30527 vitamin D inhibits PTH in patients with CKD [[88], [89]] and is associated with a lower incidence of hypercalcemia than active vitamin D. Nutritional vitamin D is converted to 1,25(OH)2D in the parathyroid gland through
hypercalcemia 36311 demonstrate the improvement in clinically cardiac outcome but did demonstrate an increased risk of hypercalcemia [[104], [105]]. Active vitamin D analogues, particularly the nonselective forms, are associated with
hypercalcemia 36426 [[104], [105]]. Active vitamin D analogues, particularly the nonselective forms, are associated with hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia because of a direct effect on the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate.In
hypercalcemia 36661 active vitamin D or vitamin D analogues, nutritional vitamin D is associated with a lower incidence of hypercalcemia [[106], [107]], and it acts as the substrate of extrarenal 1-α-hydroxylase. Cholecalciferol at a dosage
hypercalcemia 36841 1-α-hydroxylase. Cholecalciferol at a dosage of 25,000 IU every 2 weeks was effective, without inducing hypercalcemia or hyperphosphatemia in patients undergoing HD [[107]]. For nutritional vitamin D supplementation, a
hypercalcemia 37189 with vitamin D insufficiency. The cholecalciferol replacement did not demonstrate an increased risk of hypercalcemia [[108]]. In the study of cardiovascular disease in young adults with childhood onset of ESRD, the Berlin
hypercalcemia 39823 25-hydroxy vitamin D (calcifediol) has a longer plasma half-life and less potency, with fewer effects on hypercalcemia ; thus, it has become a crucial agent for vitamin D replacement in CKD patients. A previous study of
hypercalcemia 41432 combination therapy of native vitamin D and active vitamin D supplements has fewer adverse effects of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia and can improve bone quality efficiently. In patients with adynamic bone disorder
hypercalcemia 42311 even 10,000 IU) are considered to be safe with regard to acute vitamin D toxic effects leading to hypercalcemia [[4]].Vitamin D supplementation to maintain 25-OHD concentrations at 20–30 ng/mL or higher (but
hypercalcemia 43332 calcification. Nonselective VDRAs may increase vascular calcification by inducing hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia . Nutritional vitamin D supplements may provide an ancillary role for ameliorating uremic vascular calcification.Figure
hyperparathyroidism 6184 proteinuric have the lowest values. These investigators have shown that virtually all of the secondary hyperparathyroidism that occurs in the course of CKD is associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D values that are <30 ng/mL.
hyperparathyroidism 6854 at extrarenal sites; however, because of the association of low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with hyperparathyroidism in the course of CKD, it is recommended that, in patients with CKD, if hyperparathyroidism is detected,
hyperparathyroidism 6945 25-hydroxyvitamin D with hyperparathyroidism in the course of CKD, it is recommended that, in patients with CKD, if hyperparathyroidism is detected, then 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be measured, and if found to be <30 ng/mL, then the initial
hyperparathyroidism 7174 step in the therapy should be to try to correct this abnormality, as the first step in the control of hyperparathyroidism . Proteinuria, tubulointerstitial injury, GFR loss, and reduction of hepatic cytochrome p450 by pharmacologic
hyperparathyroidism 10422 progression of tubulointerstitial damage.3.4. Therapeutic 1,25(OH)2D3 UsageIn CKD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), vitamin D, particularly the active form of vitamin D, inhibits the parathyroid gland. Nigwekar
hyperparathyroidism 11007 Furthermore, the mechanism underlying decreased cytochrome P450 activity seems to be related to secondary hyperparathyroidism . This mechanism also could explain the poor response obtained when treating some patients with CKD with
hyperparathyroidism 12251 progression of CKD, atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis occur simultaneously because of mixing effects by hyperparathyroidism , renal bone dystrophy, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, retention of uremic toxin, and transformation
hyperparathyroidism 20841 been blocked with monoclonal anti-FGF23 antibodies in an experimental animal model of CKD, even if hyperparathyroidism was better controlled, the net result was a net increase in animal mortality [[55]], and these data
hyperparathyroidism 40501 vitamin D and its metabolites) and was found to reduce iPTH more effectively in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism [[115]].Native vitamin D supplementation prevents secondary hyperparathyroidism in early CKD; KDOQI
hyperparathyroidism 40581 patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism [[115]].Native vitamin D supplementation prevents secondary hyperparathyroidism in early CKD; KDOQI suggests its use is not beneficial in advanced CKD because of the lack of 1-α-hydroxylase
hyperphosphatemia 18586 of CKD, and it contributes to the genesis of SHPT [[45]]. In dialysis patients with calciphylaxis, hyperphosphatemia and calcium × phosphate product, but not PTH, were found to be risk factors in case-control studies
hyperphosphatemia 19270 higher magnitude than does indoxyl sulfate [[49]]. In CKD, abnormal mineral metabolism, predominantly hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia, facilitates the progression of the active process of osteogenesis in vascular smooth
hyperphosphatemia 20438 an anticalcification effect. FGF23-knockout mice show severe vascular calcification in addition to hyperphosphatemia . FGF23 mutation is associated with ectopic calcification [[53]]. However, in animal study, these results
hyperphosphatemia 30140 reduce vascular calcification through anti-inflammatory effects [[86]]. However, hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia are common, and they are associated with further vascular calcification. Vitamin D derivatives, such
hyperphosphatemia 30337 Vitamin D derivatives, such as paricalcitol, are associated with a reduced incidence of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia and lower severity of vascular calcification [[86], [87]]. Nutritional vitamin D inhibits PTH in patients
hyperphosphatemia 36444 Active vitamin D analogues, particularly the nonselective forms, are associated with hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia because of a direct effect on the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate.In contrast to active
hyperphosphatemia 36858 Cholecalciferol at a dosage of 25,000 IU every 2 weeks was effective, without inducing hypercalcemia or hyperphosphatemia in patients undergoing HD [[107]]. For nutritional vitamin D supplementation, a six-month course of
hyperphosphatemia 41450 of native vitamin D and active vitamin D supplements has fewer adverse effects of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia and can improve bone quality efficiently. In patients with adynamic bone disorder (low bone turnover),
hyperphosphatemia 43310 D-independent vascular calcification. Nonselective VDRAs may increase vascular calcification by inducing hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia. Nutritional vitamin D supplements may provide an ancillary role for ameliorating
metabolic syndrome 12294 arteriosclerosis occur simultaneously because of mixing effects by hyperparathyroidism, renal bone dystrophy, metabolic syndrome , hypertension, retention of uremic toxin, and transformation of adventitial progenitor cells. The following
metabolic syndrome 13427 and hyperfiltration in diabetes mellitus, and chronic inflammation exacerbates insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome [[30], [31]]. With deteriorating renal function, the accumulation of indoxyl sulfate damages the endothelial
metabolic syndrome 14048 endothelial-derived relaxing factors may signal an early stage in atherosclerosis. Hyperlipidemia, hypertension, metabolic syndrome , protein bound uremic toxins (indoxy sulfate/p-cresol sulfate), and CKD are the major causes of endothelial
secondary hyperparathyroidism 6174 severely proteinuric have the lowest values. These investigators have shown that virtually all of the secondary hyperparathyroidism that occurs in the course of CKD is associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D values that are <30 ng/mL.
secondary hyperparathyroidism 10412 the progression of tubulointerstitial damage.3.4. Therapeutic 1,25(OH)2D3 UsageIn CKD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), vitamin D, particularly the active form of vitamin D, inhibits the parathyroid gland. Nigwekar
secondary hyperparathyroidism 10997 rats. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying decreased cytochrome P450 activity seems to be related to secondary hyperparathyroidism . This mechanism also could explain the poor response obtained when treating some patients with CKD with
secondary hyperparathyroidism 40491 catabolizes vitamin D and its metabolites) and was found to reduce iPTH more effectively in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism [[115]].Native vitamin D supplementation prevents secondary hyperparathyroidism in early CKD; KDOQI
secondary hyperparathyroidism 40571 effectively in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism [[115]].Native vitamin D supplementation prevents secondary hyperparathyroidism in early CKD; KDOQI suggests its use is not beneficial in advanced CKD because of the lack of 1-α-hydroxylase
vascular calcification 1592 of cardiovascular mortality. Vitamin D deficiency, another complication of CKD, is associated with vascular calcification in patients with CKD. GFR decline, proteinuria, tubulointerstitial injury, and the therapeutic dose
vascular calcification 1903 effect on the cardiovascular system. Vitamin D supplement for CKD patients provides a protective role in vascular calcification on the endothelium by (1) renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inactivation, (2) alleviating insulin
vascular calcification 2428 calcification inhibitors. Recently, adventitial progenitor cell has been linked to be involved in the vascular calcification . Vitamin D may provide a role in modulating adventitial progenitor cells. In summary, vitamin D supplement
vascular calcification 2612 progenitor cells. In summary, vitamin D supplement may provide an ancillary role for ameliorating uremic vascular calcification . 1. IntroductionChronic kidney disease (CKD), a complex and common disease, has multiple complications
vascular calcification 3139 associated with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality [[2]]. Moreover, vascular calcification , common in patients with CKD, is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality. Vascular calcification in
vascular calcification 3683 endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. These pathologies coexist during CKD progression and exacerbate vascular calcification .Vitamin D deficiency, another complication of CKD, is associated with vascular calcification in patients
vascular calcification 3776 exacerbate vascular calcification.Vitamin D deficiency, another complication of CKD, is associated with vascular calcification in patients with CKD [[4]]. GFR decline, proteinuria, or tubular dysfunction aggravates vitamin D deficiency
vascular calcification 4026 pleiotropic effect on the cardiovascular system. This review assessed the role of vitamin D in uremic vascular calcification .2. Vitamin D MetabolismVitamin D is synthesized in the human skin or obtained from the diet. 7-Dehydrocholesterol
vascular calcification 5617 survival of patients with CKD [[8], [9]]. Therefore, our review focused on the effects of vitamin D on vascular calcification in patients with CKD.Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients with CKD: Mechanism (Figure 1)3.Recent observations
vascular calcification 12004 both arteriosclerosis (arterial stiffening) and atherosclerosis. According to the anatomical site, vascular calcification can be divided into three categories: atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, and cardiac valve calcification.
vascular calcification 15939 resulting in increased serum calcium and inorganic phosphate. Thus, patients may present with prominent vascular calcification . Both high and low bone turnover disorders are characterized by a relatively higher degree of bone resorption
vascular calcification 16190 formation, which may contribute to the elevated serum calcium and inorganic phosphate levels, and aggravate vascular calcification /ossification. Therefore, correcting the high or low turnover status of bones is crucial for alleviating
vascular calcification 16317 calcification/ossification. Therefore, correcting the high or low turnover status of bones is crucial for alleviating vascular calcification .4.3. PTH and Vascular CalcificationThe elevation of FGF23 increases the degradation of 25(OH)D by enhancing
vascular calcification 17276 endothelial growth factor receptor-2-positive endothelial progenitor cells, which are correlated with vascular calcification , worsen the endothelial dysfunction [[42]]. Previously, smooth muscle cells, mesenchymal stem cells,
vascular calcification 19699 tissues and osteochondrogenesis [[50]]. Hyperphosphatemia plays an important role in the development of vascular calcification .4.5. FGF23/Klotho and Vascular CalcificationFGF23, secreted by osteocytes, induces left ventricle hypertrophy.
vascular calcification 19903 induces left ventricle hypertrophy. However, studies have reported direct effects of FGF-23 and klotho on vascular calcification . Recent clinical and observational data suggest that FGF23 is linked to cardiovascular mortality as
vascular calcification 20120 mortality as well as subclinical indices of cardiovascular pathology such as left ventricular hypertrophy, vascular calcification , and endothelial dysfunction [[51]]. In patients at various CKD stages, plasma FGF23 is an independent
vascular calcification 20259 dysfunction [[51]]. In patients at various CKD stages, plasma FGF23 is an independent biomarker of vascular calcification [[52]]. In observation studies, FGF-23 seemingly exerted an anticalcification effect. FGF23-knockout
vascular calcification 20400 observation studies, FGF-23 seemingly exerted an anticalcification effect. FGF23-knockout mice show severe vascular calcification in addition to hyperphosphatemia. FGF23 mutation is associated with ectopic calcification [[53]]. However,
vascular calcification 21431 differentiation with inhibition of phosphate uptake. Both renal and vascular klotho protect VSMCs against vascular calcification . In klotho-deficient vessels, the deficiency is associated with vascular calcification, and it mediates
vascular calcification 21518 VSMCs against vascular calcification. In klotho-deficient vessels, the deficiency is associated with vascular calcification , and it mediates the resistance of FGF23 [[56]]. From the evidence above, the interaction between FGF23
vascular calcification 21659 the resistance of FGF23 [[56]]. From the evidence above, the interaction between FGF23 and klotho on vascular calcification needs further investigation.4.6. Decrease of Calcification Inhibitors and Vascular CalcificationRenal
vascular calcification 22490 reflects malnutrition in patients undergoing HD, and low serum fetuin-A is associated with more severe vascular calcification and subsequent cardiovascular mortality [[22]]. MGP, synthesized by VSMCs [[59]], is observed at the
vascular calcification 22838 mellitus. Pyrophosphate, degraded by alkaline phosphatase on the bone lining cells, serves as inhibitors of vascular calcification . Bisphosphate is resistant to alkaline phosphatase degradation, and it helps to ameliorate calcification.
vascular calcification 23627 calcification [[64]–[66]]. Exposure to vitamin K antagonists has been recognized as a predictor of vascular calcification in patients undergoing maintenance HD [[23], [67]].4.7. Adventitial Cell and Vascular CalcificationMesenchymal
vascular calcification 24775 after acute and during chronic injury [[70]]. Thus, Gli1+ adventitial cells play a critical role in vascular calcification in CKD.5. Vitamin D Supplements Have Therapeutic Effects on Vascular Calcification in CKD (Table 1)In
vascular calcification 24932 Have Therapeutic Effects on Vascular Calcification in CKD (Table 1)In addition to vitamin D-dependent vascular calcification because of excessive use of VDRAs, vitamin D deficiency is related to vascular calcification in CKD.
vascular calcification 25025 D-dependent vascular calcification because of excessive use of VDRAs, vitamin D deficiency is related to vascular calcification in CKD. The normal 25(OH)D level in the blood is 30–80 ng/mL (75–200 nmol/L). Although a consistent
vascular calcification 25537 associated with higher mortality in these patients. Although the cutoff value of serum 25(OH)D and vascular calcification remains controversial, vitamin D deficiency is associated with vascular calcification in patients with
vascular calcification 25623 serum 25(OH)D and vascular calcification remains controversial, vitamin D deficiency is associated with vascular calcification in patients with CKD. In uremic vascular calcification, a low serum 25(OH)D level is related to more
vascular calcification 25678 controversial, vitamin D deficiency is associated with vascular calcification in patients with CKD. In uremic vascular calcification , a low serum 25(OH)D level is related to more severe calcification in patients with CKD [[71]]. Luo
vascular calcification 26203 associated with aortic pulse velocity [[59]]. In an animal study, vitamin D deficiency accelerated vascular calcification and atherosclerosis, independent of the expression of LDL receptors on vessels [[73]]. In LDL-knockout
vascular calcification 26419 LDL-knockout mice, a low vitamin D diet stimulated the osteogenic expression of SMCs [[74]]. In uremic vascular calcification with vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D supplements exert a protective role.5.1. Vitamin D Supplements
vascular calcification 30048 vitamin D supplements. Active vitamin D suppresses the chief cells of PTH, and several derivatives reduce vascular calcification through anti-inflammatory effects [[86]]. However, hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia are common, and
vascular calcification 30207 [[86]]. However, hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia are common, and they are associated with further vascular calcification . Vitamin D derivatives, such as paricalcitol, are associated with a reduced incidence of hypercalcemia
vascular calcification 30377 are associated with a reduced incidence of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia and lower severity of vascular calcification [[86], [87]]. Nutritional vitamin D inhibits PTH in patients with CKD [[88], [89]] and is associated
vascular calcification 30838 degradation [[90]]. In low turnover disease, both vitamin D analogues and nutritional vitamin D alleviate vascular calcification . Mathew et al. reported that, in mice with adynamic bone disease, vitamin D analogues restored osteoblast
vascular calcification 32200 studies are warranted to clarify these issues. Under controlled concentrations of calcium and phosphate, vascular calcification can be controlled by correcting renal osteodystrophy.5.2.2. Restoring Calcification InhibitorsVitamin
vascular calcification 32364 osteodystrophy.5.2.2. Restoring Calcification InhibitorsVitamin D analogue supplements help to restore vascular calcification inhibitors. Hansen et al. reported that fetuin-A significantly increased in patients undergoing HD who
vascular calcification 33067 [[95]]. Therefore, vitamin D might restore calcification inhibitors in patients with uremia and alleviate vascular calcification .From the perspective of endothelial dysfunction and arterial calcification during GFR decline, vitamin
vascular calcification 33241 arterial calcification during GFR decline, vitamin D supplements should provide protection against vascular calcification .Effects of Vitamin D Supplements on Vascular Progenitor Cells: Vitamin D/Sonic Hedgehog Signaling and
vascular calcification 34459 cell adhesion, and apoptosis [[99]]. These findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency contributes to vascular calcification through increased Gli1 expression in CKD.6. Vitamin D Supplements for Vascular Calcification: Clinical
vascular calcification 34654 Vascular Calcification: Clinical EvidenceVitamin D deficiency is common in CKD and is associated with vascular calcification ; therefore, vitamin D supplements are considered. In early CKD with a preserved GFR, vitamin D supplements
vascular calcification 37808 comparable. These findings suggest that nutritional vit-D supplement may prevent the development of vascular calcification [[110]]. Notably, both high and low vitamin D levels are associated with vascular calcification, and
vascular calcification 37904 of vascular calcification [[110]]. Notably, both high and low vitamin D levels are associated with vascular calcification , and supplementation with excessive or insufficient exogenous vitamin D has been associated with vascular
vascular calcification 38024 calcification, and supplementation with excessive or insufficient exogenous vitamin D has been associated with vascular calcification in in vivo and human studies [[111]]. Assimon et al. reported that ergocalciferol reduced the plasma
vascular calcification 38659 improved arterial diastolic function in patients undergoing dialysis [[108]]. Since the mechanism of vascular calcification in CKD is complex, early use of nutritional vit-D in CKD may be helpful although its therapeutic effect
vascular calcification 43045 decline, renal tubular dysfunction, and proteinuria. With CKD progression, multiple factors exacerbate vascular calcification , including vitamin D deficiency. VDRAs or nutritional vitamin D supplements facilitate the alleviation
vascular calcification 43219 nutritional vitamin D supplements facilitate the alleviation of vitamin D-dependent or vitamin D-independent vascular calcification . Nonselective VDRAs may increase vascular calcification by inducing hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia.
vascular calcification 43275 vitamin D-dependent or vitamin D-independent vascular calcification. Nonselective VDRAs may increase vascular calcification by inducing hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia. Nutritional vitamin D supplements may provide an ancillary
vascular calcification 43435 hypercalcemia. Nutritional vitamin D supplements may provide an ancillary role for ameliorating uremic vascular calcification .Figure 1The factors inducing vitamin D deficiency in chronic kidney disease.Figure 2Vit-D deficiency
vascular calcification 43577 inducing vitamin D deficiency in chronic kidney disease.Figure 2Vit-D deficiency may contribute to vascular calcification through increase in Gli1 expression in CKD. Mesenchymal stem cell- (MSC-) like cells reside in the vascular
vascular calcification 43900 key contributors to injury-induced organ fibrosis. Gli1+ adventitial cells have a critical role in vascular calcification in CKD. 1,25(OH)2-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) suppresses Gli1. Blockage of VDR by siRNA resulted
vascular calcification 44218 hedgehog (Hh) pathway inhibitors Suppressor of Fused (SuFu). The vit-D deficiency may contribute to vascular calcification through increase in Gli1 expression in CKD.Table 1Potential roles of vitamin D in preventing vascular
vascular calcification 44334 calcification through increase in Gli1 expression in CKD.Table 1Potential roles of vitamin D in preventing vascular calcification on endothelium and vascular smooth muscle.Alleviating endothelial calcificationMechanismAlleviating

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