Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity

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metabolic syndrome 4 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 40 endocrinologydiseases
osteoporosis 1 endocrinologydiseases
testosterone 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
Insulin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hyperglycemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperlipidemia 1 endocrinologydiseases

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Insulin 8235 with visceral obesity, which may lead to a vicious cycle of intricate interactions among risk factors. Insulin resistance plays an important role in muscle fiber atrophy and mitochondrial dysfunction [[21]]. Bijlsma
testosterone 8634 absolute muscle mass or muscle strength. Aging is related to changes in a variety of hormones, including testosterone , estrogen, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, and corticosteroids [[23]]. These hormonal
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
hyperglycemia 14109 demonstrated that individuals with sarcopenic obesity have worse cardiovascular risk profiles, including hyperglycemia , hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and lower cardiorespiratory fitness [[55]-[57]]. Similarly,
hyperlipidemia 10812 further aggravates the risk of cardiovascular risk factors such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in adult Japanese women [[38]]. Previous prospective studies have consistently shown a relationship
metabolic syndrome 10513 have an increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which is now recognized as a feature of metabolic syndrome [[35]]. Low muscle mass is related to cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension and arterial
metabolic syndrome 10691 factors including hypertension and arterial stiffness [[36],[37]]. The coexistence of sarcopenia and metabolic syndrome further aggravates the risk of cardiovascular risk factors such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and
metabolic syndrome 12304 indicator of sarcopenic obesity [[47]]. We found that VMR values were independently associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.The complex interplay of common pathophysiological mechanisms, such as increased proinflammatory
metabolic syndrome 14320 Similarly, a Taiwanese study showed that sarcopenic obesity is associated with the highest risk of metabolic syndrome [[58]]. Furthermore, sarcopenia exacerbated obesity-associated dysglycemia and insulin resistance in
obesity 72 Title: The Korean Journal of Internal MedicineSarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity Kyung Mook ChoiPublication date (ppub): 11/2016Publication date (epub): 11/2016AbstractSarcopenia is
obesity 711 such as an increase in visceral fat and reduced muscle mass. Recently, the new concept of sarcopenic obesity has emerged, reflecting a combination of sarcopenia and obesity. The rapidly increasing prevalence and
obesity 775 Recently, the new concept of sarcopenic obesity has emerged, reflecting a combination of sarcopenia and obesity . The rapidly increasing prevalence and serious consequences of sarcopenic obesity are recognized as
obesity 857 of sarcopenia and obesity. The rapidly increasing prevalence and serious consequences of sarcopenic obesity are recognized as a critical public health risk in the aging society. Sarcopenia and obesity share several
obesity 950 sarcopenic obesity are recognized as a critical public health risk in the aging society. Sarcopenia and obesity share several pathophysiological mechanisms, and they may potentiate each other. The present paper reviews
obesity 1169 definitions and techniques used to measure sarcopenia, as well as the health outcomes of sarcopenic obesity . It also highlights the role of diminished muscle mass and strength in cardiometabolic disease mortality.
obesity 1391 Additional research may be needed to promote the identification and management of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in the elderly population.INTRODUCTIONOne of the dramatic changes associated with human aging is the
obesity 8146 intervention and disease improvement. Most mechanisms of sarcopenia are also associated with visceral obesity , which may lead to a vicious cycle of intricate interactions among risk factors. Insulin resistance
obesity 11689 is a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of obesity in middle-aged and older adults has doubled since 1980, and it continues to increase worldwide [[9]].
obesity 11972 body fat and a decline in skeletal muscle, although BMI may remain relatively unchanged. Sarcopenic obesity was first defined by Baumgartner [[46]] as the co-presence of sarcopenia and obesity, as measured using
obesity 12057 unchanged. Sarcopenic obesity was first defined by Baumgartner [[46]] as the co-presence of sarcopenia and obesity , as measured using DXA. We subsequently introduced the ratio of visceral fat to thigh muscle area (VMR),
obesity 12228 visceral fat to thigh muscle area (VMR), as measured using CT, as a single indicator of sarcopenic obesity [[47]]. We found that VMR values were independently associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.The
obesity 12595 hormonal changes and decreased physical activity, underlie the close relationship between sarcopenia and obesity (Fig. 1). We reported that the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and vitamin
obesity 12762 assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and vitamin D levels are independently associated with sarcopenic obesity in men, whereas HOMA-IR and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are associated with sarcopenic obesity
obesity 12865 obesity in men, whereas HOMA-IR and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are associated with sarcopenic obesity in women [[48]]. A vicious cycle may exist between the accumulation of ectopic fat and the loss of skeletal
obesity 13162 Sarcopenia reduces physical activity, which leads to decreased energy expenditure and increases the risk of obesity [[50]]. In contrast, an increase in visceral fat induces inflammation, which contributes to the development
obesity 13336 inflammation, which contributes to the development of sarcopenia [[51]]. In our longitudinal study, visceral obesity was independently associated with the future loss of skeletal muscle mass after adjusting for confounding
obesity 13540 confounding factors [[52]].IMPACT OF SARCOPENIC OBESITY ON MORBIDITY AND MORTALITYBoth sarcopenia and obesity are associated with metabolic disorders, morbidity, and mortality [[50]]. Thus, it has been hypothesized
obesity 13669 metabolic disorders, morbidity, and mortality [[50]]. Thus, it has been hypothesized that sarcopenic obesity may have a greater impact on metabolic diseases and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than either
obesity 13794 greater impact on metabolic diseases and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than either sarcopenia or obesity alone [[9],[53]].Recent studies have emphasized the influence of sarcopenic obesity on cardiometabolic
obesity 13878 either sarcopenia or obesity alone [[9],[53]].Recent studies have emphasized the influence of sarcopenic obesity on cardiometabolic risk and health outcomes [[23],[53],[54]]. Several cross-sectional studies in elderly
obesity 14050 Several cross-sectional studies in elderly Koreans have demonstrated that individuals with sarcopenic obesity have worse cardiovascular risk profiles, including hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin
obesity 14273 and lower cardiorespiratory fitness [[55]-[57]]. Similarly, a Taiwanese study showed that sarcopenic obesity is associated with the highest risk of metabolic syndrome [[58]]. Furthermore, sarcopenia exacerbated
obesity 14383 associated with the highest risk of metabolic syndrome [[58]]. Furthermore, sarcopenia exacerbated obesity -associated dysglycemia and insulin resistance in a cross-sectional study from the National Health and
obesity 14635 III) [[32]]. However, there have been conflicting results regarding whether patients with sarcopenic obesity have the worst risk profiles. Several cross-sectional studies have reported that obese individuals have
obesity 14807 have reported that obese individuals have more cardiovascular risk factors than those with sarcopenic obesity [[59],[60]].A limited number of studies have investigated the effects of sarcopenia and obesity on cardiovascular
obesity 14903 sarcopenic obesity [[59],[60]].A limited number of studies have investigated the effects of sarcopenia and obesity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Stephen and Janssen [[61]] showed that sarcopenic obesity
obesity 15008 obesity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Stephen and Janssen [[61]] showed that sarcopenic obesity is associated with increased CVD risk based on muscle strength but not muscle mass. In the British Regional
obesity 15162 muscle strength but not muscle mass. In the British Regional Heart Study, subjects with sarcopenic obesity had a significantly higher risk of mortality compared to nonsarcopenic, nonobese subjects [[41]]. In
obesity 15415 NHANES III study, older women with sarcopenia had a higher risk of all-cause mortality, independent of obesity [[62]]. A recent meta-analysis demonstrated that sarcopenic obesity is associated with a 24% increase
obesity 15483 all-cause mortality, independent of obesity [[62]]. A recent meta-analysis demonstrated that sarcopenic obesity is associated with a 24% increase in the risk of all-cause mortality compared to patients without sarcopenic
obesity 15600 associated with a 24% increase in the risk of all-cause mortality compared to patients without sarcopenic obesity , particularly in men [[63]].CONCLUSIONSAlthough BMI is a simple estimator of obesity, it cannot fully
obesity 15685 without sarcopenic obesity, particularly in men [[63]].CONCLUSIONSAlthough BMI is a simple estimator of obesity , it cannot fully reflect muscle mass and body fat. Accumulating evidence underscores the need to consider
obesity 15852 Accumulating evidence underscores the need to consider muscle function and mass when evaluating the risk of obesity in elderly people. Visceral fat and muscle mass seem to have opposing influences on cardiometabolic
obesity 15996 muscle mass seem to have opposing influences on cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality. Sarcopenic obesity is a relatively novel concept that has become increasingly important in the aging population. There
obesity 16143 become increasingly important in the aging population. There has been some evidence that sarcopenic obesity may be associated with an increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular risk factors compared to sarcopenia
obesity 16263 associated with an increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular risk factors compared to sarcopenia or obesity alone. However, several different definitions of sarcopenia limit the clinical application of sarcopenia
obesity 16391 several different definitions of sarcopenia limit the clinical application of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity with regard to metabolic disorders and CVD. A consensus definition of sarcopenia is needed to promote
obesity 16557 definition of sarcopenia is needed to promote the standardized diagnosis and management of sarcopenic obesity . Furthermore, in addition to reducing body fat, increasing muscle mass and strength is required to promote
obesity 16741 strength is required to promote healthy aging.Figure 1.Mechanisms and consequences of sarcopenia and obesity . CVD, cardiovascular disease.Table 1.Methods for measurement of muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical
osteoporosis 2803 nutrition [[6]]. Sarcopenia is closely associated with frailty, physical disability, hospitalization, osteoporosis , osteoarthritis, and even mortality [[7],[8]].DEFINITIONS OF SARCOPENIASeveral different definitions

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