"English Disease": Historical Notes on Rickets, the Bone-Lung Link and Child Neglect Issues

Existing Reviews

Please note, new claims can take a short while to show up.

No claims yet.

Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
osteoporosis 1 endocrinologydiseases
rickets 64 endocrinologydiseases
calcitriol 3 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
cholecalciferol 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hypophosphatasia 1 endocrinologydiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

Note: If this graph is empty, then there are no terms that meet the proximity constraint.

Review

Having read the paper, please pick a pair of statements from the paper to indicate that a drug and disease are related.

Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
calcitriol 4282 cellular components possess Vitamin D receptors (VDRs) that can bind the active form of Vitamin D ( calcitriol , 1,25-dihydroxyVitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D) [[30],[31],[32],[33]]. The storage form of Vitamin D, which is
calcitriol 27413 rickets and pneumonia may be explained by the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the immune system, because calcitriol stimulates phagocyte-dependent and antibody-dependent macrophage cytotoxicity modulating simultaneously
calcitriol 27741 randomized controlled trials has produced variable results [[27]]. In fact, the supplementation of calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3) as a compound or adjuvant molecule to increase the efficacy of an influenza vaccine in
cholecalciferol 23167 bacterial and viral infections [[30],[31],[32],[83],[84],[85],[86],[87],[88],[89],[90]]; for example, cholecalciferol in the management of tuberculosis (TB) [[14],[91],[92]]. In addition to the conventional T, B, and natural
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
hypophosphatasia 21914 deposition of mineral. Two diagnoses need to be ruled out clinically, biochemically and/or genetically: hypophosphatasia [[81],[82]] and metaphyseal chondrodysplasia [[67]]. Box 2Epiphyseal Physis and Medullary Bone Histologic
osteoporosis 3931 leading role in calcium homeostasis. Vitamin D deficiency is a major cause of rickets, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis in the human population [[23],[24],[25],[26]]. More recently, the link between Vitamin D deficiency
rickets 1051 CanadaPublication date (epub): 11/2016Publication date (collection): 11/2016AbstractNutritional or classical rickets (here labeled as “rickets”) is a worldwide disease involving mostly infants and young children having
rickets 1079 11/2016Publication date (collection): 11/2016AbstractNutritional or classical rickets (here labeled as “ rickets ”) is a worldwide disease involving mostly infants and young children having inadequate sunlight exposure,
rickets 1455 spanning more than two millennia. Vitamin D is critical for the absorption of calcium and prevention of rickets in children as well as osteomalacia in adults. The initial and misleading paradigm of the 19th and 20th
rickets 1582 as osteomalacia in adults. The initial and misleading paradigm of the 19th and 20th centuries that rickets may have been the consequence of infection has been, indeed, reversed following the identification of
rickets 2054 consider the key historical (Whistler, pre-Whistler and post-Whistler descriptors) and social facts around rickets ; highlight the osteo-pathological features of rickets and the pathology of the upper and lower respiratory
rickets 2108 post-Whistler descriptors) and social facts around rickets; highlight the osteo-pathological features of rickets and the pathology of the upper and lower respiratory tract, stressing the fact that lungs remain the
rickets 2587 disease that is limited to low-income countries. In fact, there has been a resurgence of interest in rickets and Vitamin D status to the degree that was not thought of at the end of the 20th century. The number
rickets 3904 Conventionally, Vitamin D plays a leading role in calcium homeostasis. Vitamin D deficiency is a major cause of rickets , osteomalacia, and osteoporosis in the human population [[23],[24],[25],[26]]. More recently, the link
rickets 4990 we report on the history of the “English Disease”, highlight the osteopathological features of rickets as well as the pathology of the respiratory tract, and discuss the leading role of public health in
rickets 6098 Historical NotesThe year 1645 is commonly recognized as the opening year for the scientific literature on rickets . That year is mostly famous for several events linked to the English Civil War and to the battle of
rickets 7096 documents, David Whistler is known as the first physician who published an imposing scientific work on rickets . The English disease or “Morbum Anglorum” was more than a disease and had and will have notable
rickets 7265 disease and had and will have notable impact on social and industrial life. Dr. Whistler named the rickets “Paedosplanchosteocaces”, a rational, but probably awkward name, which was not favored by the scientific
rickets 7823 [[39]]. Neither poor nor powerful families were able to prevent their children from suffering from rickets during the Renaissance. Even members of the Medici family, one of the most powerful families during
rickets 8243 16th century based on the description of a child of the Medici family who was found to suffer from rickets [[41]]. A child of the Medici family identified as Don Filippino (1577–1582), son of the Grand Duke
rickets 9130 were frail were often confined indoor with poor exposure to sunlight. Another remarkable pre-Whistler rickets case may have been represented in Caravaggio’s Amore dormiente [[44],[45],[46]].Earlier pre-Whistler
rickets 9508 representatives of the Methodic school of medicine. He describes some bone deformities, which may have been rickets , attributing this disease to improper childcare. Another reference may have been that of Claudius Galenus
rickets 9811 another Greek physician of the Roman Empire, who also wrote of a disease suggesting the appearance of rickets in De Morborum Causis. However, he attributed the chest deformities of the affected infants and toddlers
rickets 10148 episodes in China that help to delineate some difficulties and ambiguities of the clinical picture of rickets . Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham CH FRS FBA (1900–1995) was a British scientist, historian
rickets 10372 who travelled multiple times into Eastern countries [[52]]. Indeed, a number of diseases, including rickets , were brilliantly known in ancient China. Iconography of the industrial cities of Germany and Holland,
rickets 10570 and Holland, at least 200 years before Whistler’s description, definitely support the thesis that rickets existed to some extent at all times and periods of the world’s history [[46],[53],[54]].It is common
rickets 10734 world’s history [[46],[53],[54]].It is common knowledge that Dr. Whistler’s first description of rickets was eclipsed by Dr. Glisson’s scientific contribution of five years later. Francis Glisson (1597–1677),
rickets 10908 years later. Francis Glisson (1597–1677), born and raised in Rampisham, Dorset, published a book on rickets , which was particularly appreciated by both the scientific and public communities. His publication “De
rickets 11812 Physicians (1667–1670), was also one of the first fellows of the Royal Society (1663). The existence of rickets at that time may be further supported by an autopsy performed on an 18-month-old child in June 1666
rickets 12509 epistemology and science to political philosophy [[57]]. Glisson’s influential position in medicine made rickets soon become the English disease of the pre-Industrial Revolution in the British Isles. Among several
rickets 12907 in smog. Glasgow physician, William Macewan, had probably unsurpassed experience with children with rickets using osteotomy to treat the leg deformities at the end of the 19th century [[63]]. He suggested that
rickets 13345 use [[64]]. However, many physicians were hypercritical against cod liver as a specific therapy for rickets [[65]]. After the 1st world war (WWI), the “sunshine movement” seemed to prevail, although the medical
rickets 13590 of the opinion that both specific dietary deprivations and environmental restrictions contribute to rickets [[28]]. Two more prominent figures may have approached and conquered the rickets scene, i.e., Florence
rickets 13671 restrictions contribute to rickets [[28]]. Two more prominent figures may have approached and conquered the rickets scene, i.e., Florence Nightingale and Hugh Owen Thomas. Ms. Nightingale, OM, RRC (1820–1910) was an
rickets 14724 shape involving location in the countryside, regular open air, and plenty of sunshine time. Although rickets was probably not the primary diagnosis of children admitted to the “sunshine” hospitals, the sunshine
rickets 14868 diagnosis of children admitted to the “sunshine” hospitals, the sunshine must have promoted healing of rickets in many patients. Undeniably, the “sunshine” movement was in full swing probably years before scientific
rickets 15057 probably years before scientific proof became available in its support. Although the association between rickets and air pollution functioning as a barrier to sunlight in industrial and high density domestic areas
rickets 15447 change. In 1889, a BMA working party issued an official report on the geographical distribution of rickets as well as other diseases involving large industrial towns and their environments at that period and
rickets 15646 period and a Cumbrian general practitioner published a report, which became key for the treatment of rickets [[69]]. Following his graduation from Edinburgh University, Dr. Theobald Adrian Palm (1848–1928) joined
rickets 15852 joined a Medical Mission in Niigata, Japan. Dr. Palm was impressed by the absence of patients with rickets , which impelled him to request his colleagues as to their experiences in other countries worldwide.
rickets 16085 an inspiring epidemiological conclusion that there is an inverse relationship between prevalence of rickets and exposure to the sun [[70],[71]]. Between 1914 and 1918, most of the Austro-Hungarian and Prussian-German
rickets 16349 the British navy and Russian army. Inadequate food supply for most of the population was common and rickets was common in children and adolescents in wartime Vienna, Budapest, and Berlin [[71]]. Orphanages were
rickets 16849 Reichswehr as a field medic during WWI. In the winter of 1918/1919, he successfully demonstrated how rickets could be treated with ultra-violet (UV) lamps [[72]]. It is estimated that an impressive proportion
rickets 17013 is estimated that an impressive proportion of German children, perhaps half of them, suffered from rickets . Heliotherapy was a common protocol for numerous illnesses and seemed to be promising in healing or
rickets 17163 numerous illnesses and seemed to be promising in healing or at least relieving some manifestations of rickets . He tried to adapt existing X-ray technology to generate artificial UV and photographs of that time
rickets 17628 [[73],[74],[75]]. Interestingly, Huldschinsky showed that exposure shined on only one arm indeed cured rickets in both arms, and hypothesized that a chemical compound was synthesized in response to UV light that
rickets 18072 [[76]]. Sir Edward Mellanby (1884–1955) discovered Vitamin D and its potential role in preventing rickets in 1919 [[77],[78],[79]]. Sir Mellanby uniquely discovered that cod liver oil could reverse rickets
rickets 18172 rickets in 1919 [[77],[78],[79]]. Sir Mellanby uniquely discovered that cod liver oil could reverse rickets in porridge-fed caged dogs. The appointment as professor of pharmacology at the University of Sheffield
rickets 18762 Austria emphasizing that both cod liver oil and sunlight exposure were indeed successful in healing rickets [[80]]. Pre-Whistlerian, Whistler’s and post-Whistlerian data form the basis for the current recommendations
rickets 18976 recommendations of several medical societies worldwide [[65]].3. OsteopathologyVitamin D deficiency results in rickets in children with growing bones, and osteomalacia in adults with completed growth and closed growth plates
rickets 19128 osteomalacia in adults with completed growth and closed growth plates [[7]]. The characteristic features of rickets are centered during the endochondral ossification, which is responsible for the longitudinal growth
rickets 20531 light microscopic view shows collagen fibers that are arranged in a parallel fashion. Children with rickets have irregular, broadened, cup shaped epiphyseal growth plates around knees, ankles and wrists, while
rickets 21682 bone are highlighted [[7]]. In particular, the zone of provisional calcification seen in children with rickets is poorly defined with only a few of the defective bars between the almost non-existent columns of chondrocytes
rickets 26979 worldwide [[7]]. About 43% of 200 Iranian children admitted to the hospital with radiographically proven rickets had classic signs of bronchopneumonia [[116]], about half of 250 Kuwaiti children with rickets had pneumonia
rickets 27074 proven rickets had classic signs of bronchopneumonia [[116]], about half of 250 Kuwaiti children with rickets had pneumonia or bronchopneumonia [[117]], and even four out of five of Egyptian children with rickets
rickets 27177 rickets had pneumonia or bronchopneumonia [[117]], and even four out of five of Egyptian children with rickets showed acute respiratory infections at some point during hospitalization [[118]]. As mentioned earlier,
rickets 27314 infections at some point during hospitalization [[118]]. As mentioned earlier, this association between rickets and pneumonia may be explained by the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the immune system, because calcitriol
rickets 29428 (NHS) developed a number of preventions for disease prevention [[125]]. The success of Britain over rickets in wartime included first, rationing and state-run canteens with sufficient nutritious diet for poor
rickets 29861 D supplementation of the nursing mothers, infants and toddlers [[126],[127]]. In 1954, victory over rickets was announced [[123],[128]]. However, in the early 1960s, an apparent increase in rickets was observed
rickets 29951 victory over rickets was announced [[123],[128]]. However, in the early 1960s, an apparent increase in rickets was observed [[129],[130]]. In the early 1960s, higher rates of rickets were seen among recent migrants
rickets 30023 1960s, an apparent increase in rickets was observed [[129],[130]]. In the early 1960s, higher rates of rickets were seen among recent migrants to Britain from the “New Commonwealth” (the so-called “Asian Rickets”)
rickets 30438 behind Vitamin D deficiency and/or fortification are intrinsically intertwined with the history of rickets and governmental choices. Medical professionals and the British Medical Association continued to insist
rickets 30567 choices. Medical professionals and the British Medical Association continued to insist on the return of rickets [[123]]. Rickets regained its place on the discussion agenda of the parliamentary debate only in 1971
rickets 30930 families, particularly of South Asian descent, filled tabloids and newspapers. The rise of the identity of rickets as “Asian Rickets” was gaining debate in the political sphere ignoring a generation of British-born
rickets 31410 supplementation and more active governmental engagement have produced little action even today, because rickets has not disappeared entirely from the British Isles.Rickets is probably underdiagnosed in many Western
rickets 32251 rarely given. Children on macrobiotic diets showed physical and roentgenographic findings indicative of rickets more often than in the case of other vegetarian diets. In fact, Dagnelie et al. also studied the Vitamin
rickets 32591 availability of calcium in the macrobiotic diet was an independent factor in causing the high prevalence of rickets in these infants [[152]]. Macrobiotic diet avoids milk products and includes a high fiber intake. Both
rickets 32783 fiber intake. Both components may have adverse effects on bone development in young children. Thus, rickets has been reported and is a dramatic reality in immigrant children not only in the United Kingdom, but
rickets 33344 respiratory tract may pass unnoticed by a social worker. Public health policies are not focused on rickets (Vitamin D supplementation and screening programs) and many pediatricians think that it is a disease
rickets 36365 original magnification, Masson’s trichromic stain). (d) Whole-mount of the lung of an infant with rickets showing lobar pneumonia (personal archived material, C. Sergi)

You must be authorized to submit a review.