Cytokine Profile in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with and without Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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obesity 949 biomarkers in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of chronic periodontitis (CP) patients with and without obesity , MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, and SCOPUS databases were combined with handsearching of articles
obesity 1717 adiponectin. Two studies reported similar levels of CRP in patients with periodontitis with and without obesity . One study showed higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in obese patients with CP. One study
obesity 2037 inflammation may have a greater influence on the GCF proinflammatory biomarker levels as compared to systemic obesity . Whether patients having chronic periodontitis with obesity have elevated proinflammatory GCF biomarkers
obesity 2097 biomarker levels as compared to systemic obesity. Whether patients having chronic periodontitis with obesity have elevated proinflammatory GCF biomarkers levels compared to nonobese individuals remains debatable.1.
obesity 2556 vivo and in vitro studies has demonstrated a strong association between chronic periodontitis (CP) and obesity [[3]–[6]]. The underlying mechanisms of periodontitis in obesity are not well understood; however,
obesity 2623 between chronic periodontitis (CP) and obesity [[3]–[6]]. The underlying mechanisms of periodontitis in obesity are not well understood; however, it is suggested that the increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines
obesity 3636 cause periodontal tissue destruction [[12]]. The reason for studying these proinflammatory cytokines in obesity is to validate the association of the same cytokines which are actively involved in jeopardizing periodontal
obesity 4848 controversy with regard to GCF cytokine profile in chronic periodontitis patients with and without obesity . Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically review the GCF cytokine profile in CP patients
obesity 4976 of this study was to systematically review the GCF cytokine profile in CP patients with and without obesity .2. Methods2.1. Protocol and RegistrationThis review was registered at the National Institute for Health
obesity 5850 of assay method;cytokine profile in the GCF of patients with chronic periodontitis with and without obesity .In vitro studies; animal studies; studies providing analyses of cytokines in fluids other than GCF;
obesity 12176 with CP, whereas 3 studies reported comparable levels of GCF leptin among CP patients with and without obesity [[6], [19], [24]]. One study [[6]] showed higher levels of TNF-α in obese CP subjects as compared to
obesity 12416 in four studies [[16], [17], [19], [24]], TNF-α was comparable among CP patients with and without obesity . Fadel et al. [[24]] showed similar levels of IL1-β, IL-8, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)
obesity 12977 Two studies [[25], [26]] reported similar levels of CRP in periodontitis patients with and without obesity . Overall, a total of 8 studies [[6], [16], [17], [19], [23]–[26]] showed comparable cytokine levels
obesity 13122 [16], [17], [19], [23]–[26]] showed comparable cytokine levels among CP subjects with and without obesity , whereas a total of 5 studies [[6], [16], [20], [25], [26]] showed significantly raised cytokine levels
obesity 15449 DiscussionThe present systematic review assessed the GCF cytokine profile in CP patients with and without obesity . Eight studies [[6], [16], [17], [19], [23]–[26]] reported similar levels of cytokine (resistin, adiponectin,
obesity 15662 adiponectin, leptin, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL1β, TNF-α, CRP, and PAI-1) among CP patients with and without obesity , while 5 studies [[6], [16], [20], [25], [26]] showed significantly higher levels of cytokine (IL-8,
obesity 16603 to collagen and bone destruction [[30]–[32]].The premise of increased proinflammatory cytokines in obesity is such that the metabolic cells such as adipocytes initiate inflammation by triggering inflammatory
obesity 17451 can be posed regarding the similarity in cytokine levels in the GCF of CP patients with and without obesity . The studies [[6], [16], [17], [19]–[26]], which were included in this systematic review, were conducted
obesity 18394 periodontal inflammation on GCF cytokine levels in nonobese subjects could have exceeded the impact of obesity on GCF cytokine levels in obese CP patients. Moreover, in nearly half of the studies, the exclusion
obesity 20017 GCF cytokine levels (including leptin) rather than the increased systemic inflammatory burden due to obesity .It is well recognized that tobacco smoking has been shown to be deleterious for periodontal health [[43],
obesity 20622 responsible for the increased GCF cytokine concentrations in subjects with periodontitis with and without obesity [[46]]. Weight management in obese subjects has shown a reduction in systemic inflammatory burden as
obesity 20979 IL-1β in GCF of obese subjects with healthy periodontium [[49]]. The effect of periodontal therapy on obesity has been reported in recent study [[50]]; however, the effect of weight control on GCF cytokine profile
obesity 21686 assessment of available data, it remains arguable whether patients having chronic periodontitis with obesity have elevated proinflammatory GCF cytokine levels compared to nonobese individuals.5. ConclusionThe
obesity 21968 inflammation may have a greater influence on the GCF proinflammatory biomarker levels as compared to systemic obesity . Whether patients having chronic periodontitis with obesity have elevated proinflammatory GCF biomarkers
obesity 22028 biomarker levels as compared to systemic obesity. Whether patients having chronic periodontitis with obesity have elevated proinflammatory GCF biomarkers levels compared to nonobese individuals remains debatable.Figure
obesity 22371 standard mean difference (SMD) of GCF cytokine levels between chronic periodontitis (CP) with and without obesity for (a) resistin; (b) adiponectin; (c) leptin; (d) TNF-α; (e) IL-6; (f) IL-8; and (g) IL-1β.Table
obesity 24528 bone lossCAL ≥ 3 mmGCF; micropipettes; 1 μL; −70°CFadel et al. [[24]], 2014Cross-sectional; obesity clinic; Sweden55Group 1: 15.0 (±1.0)Group 2: 16.0 (±2.0)29/26NANAGCF; paper strips; −80°CZimmermann

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