Neuroprotection via Reduction in Stress: Altered Menstrual Patterns as a Marker for Stress and Implications for Long-Term Neurologic Health in Women

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
hypogonadism 4 endocrinologydiseases
osteoporosis 1 endocrinologydiseases
hypothyroidism 3 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 2 endocrinologydiseases
polycystic ovary syndrome 1 endocrinologydiseases
testosterone 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
Hypoestrogenism 1 endocrinologydiseases
cortisol 16 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
dexamethasone 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
cortisol 1163 amenorrhea includes restoration of ovulatory ovarian function and fertility and amelioration of hyper cortisol ism and hypothyroidism. Taken together, recovery from functional hypothalamic amenorrhea putatively offers
cortisol 3636 behavioral causes and implies that, once the salient stressors are identified and their impact reduced, cortisol levels will normalize, GnRH drive will increase, and ovulatory ovarian function will resume [[6]]. FHA
cortisol 4198 maintains the other neuroendocrine concomitants is a subtle, mostly nocturnal, increase in circulating cortisol [[8]]. Women with FHA have higher cortisol levels relative to eumenorrheic women and women with other
cortisol 4241 concomitants is a subtle, mostly nocturnal, increase in circulating cortisol [[8]]. Women with FHA have higher cortisol levels relative to eumenorrheic women and women with other forms of ovulatory dysfunction [[6],[9]].
cortisol 4370 eumenorrheic women and women with other forms of ovulatory dysfunction [[6],[9]]. Notably, this hyper cortisol ism is also observed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of women with FHA [[10]]. Not only is the proportional
cortisol 4540 with FHA [[10]]. Not only is the proportional rise greater in the CSF than in the circulation, the cortisol in the CSF is also unbound and thus more bioavailable. Therefore, the brunt of activated stress signaling
cortisol 6768 [[15]].3. Glucocorticoid Effects upon Reproductive TissuesThe health impact of chronic hypothalamic hyper cortisol ism and its concomitants remain to be fully characterized; however, it is clear that the impact extends
cortisol 9896 previously shown that CBT-induced restoration of ovarian function was accompanied by reductions in cortisol , particularly during the nocturnal phase, and other metabolic variables, including increased leptin
cortisol 10947 individual and her offspring.5. Molecular Consequences of StressAn insidious consequence of the elevated cortisol that accompanies chronic stress is that the cellular machinery that estrogen would otherwise access
cortisol 11160 hijacked by the elevated glucocorticoids [[47]]. Using molecular expression, Bolt et al. showed that cortisol and estradiol utilized the same co-activators to “fine-tune” transcriptional responses [[48]].Molecular
cortisol 11879 chaperone proteins [[51]]. These molecular findings speak to the importance of lowering stress and cortisol . Therefore, not only do patients with FHA have lower levels of estrogen, but exogenous estrogen replacement
cortisol 12118 consequences of hypoestrogenism due to the antagonism of estrogen action by elevated glucocorticoids.Hyper cortisol ism induces a state termed catabolism and women with FHA are catabolic rather than anabolic [[52]]. Catabolism
cortisol 12339 conferred and signaled by reduced thyroid hormone and growth hormone secretion [[6]]. The elevated cortisol that is central to FHA directly reduces TSH, thyroxine (T4), and thyronine (T3) levels. Cortisol suppresses
cortisol 14663 viruses, and hypoxia [[58],[59],[60]]. Women with FHA, with hypoestrogenism, hypothyroidism, and hyper cortisol ism, are at risk for being in a pro-inflammatory state. If so, the brains of women with FHA may be more
cortisol 16225 low levels associated with anovulation may impair brain health. The high systemic and CSF levels of cortisol due to stress likely cause direct neuronal and glial toxicity and potentiate early apoptosis in vulnerable
cortisol 17471 brain health.Metabolic Aberrations in FHA that May Contribute to Long-Term NeurodegenerationElevated cortisol [[9],[10]]Hypoestrogenism [[2]]Catabolism [[51]]Hypothalamic hypothyroidism [[6]
dexamethasone 7949 accelerate molecular aging via regulation of telomerase [[31]].Exogenous glucocorticoids (betamethasone and dexamethasone ) are given for pregnancies at risk of preterm delivery, as these steroids accelerate fetal lung surfactant
testosterone 1753 better investigated, but it is likely that both low estradiol from stress-induced anovulation and low testosterone from stress-induced hypogonadism compromise brain health.1. IntroductionStress has many adverse health
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
Hypoestrogenism 17490 health.Metabolic Aberrations in FHA that May Contribute to Long-Term NeurodegenerationElevated cortisol [[9],[10]] Hypoestrogenism [[2]]Catabolism [[51]]Hypothalamic hypothyroidism [[6]
hypogonadism 1466 syndromic Alzheimer’s disease. Amenorrhea may be viewed as a sentinel indicator of stress. Hypothalamic hypogonadism is less clinically evident in men and the diagnosis is difficult to establish. Whether there are other
hypogonadism 1786 likely that both low estradiol from stress-induced anovulation and low testosterone from stress-induced hypogonadism compromise brain health.1. IntroductionStress has many adverse health effects [[1]]. Unfortunately,
hypogonadism 2191 chronic stress include menstrual irregularities, amenorrhea, and/or infertility due to hypothalamic hypogonadism . The endocrine signature of stress may be more likely to be reported as menstrual cycle changes rather
hypogonadism 2826 evident example of the psychoneuroendocrinological condition, often termed functional hypothalamic hypogonadism . Our research has not only revealed the mechanisms mediating the link between chronic stress and FHA
hypothyroidism 1179 includes restoration of ovulatory ovarian function and fertility and amelioration of hypercortisolism and hypothyroidism . Taken together, recovery from functional hypothalamic amenorrhea putatively offers neuroprotection
hypothyroidism 14638 response to bacteria, viruses, and hypoxia [[58],[59],[60]]. Women with FHA, with hypoestrogenism, hypothyroidism , and hypercortisolism, are at risk for being in a pro-inflammatory state. If so, the brains of women
hypothyroidism 17541 Long-Term NeurodegenerationElevated cortisol [[9],[10]]Hypoestrogenism [[2]]Catabolism [[51]]Hypothalamic hypothyroidism [[6]
obesity 6121 chronic stress leads to a range of problematic eating patterns that could eventuate in either thinness or obesity . Obesity alone can suppress GnRH drive [[13]]. It is important to realize that not all anovulatory women
obesity 6404 the majority, have “heavy” as opposed to “thin” FHA. From a systemic perspective, stress and obesity can act synergistically to increase inflammation [[14]]. This increased systemic inflammation over time
osteoporosis 2618 neuroendocrine secretory patterns may impact brain health and accelerate the onset of aging syndromes such as osteoporosis , vaginal atrophy, and dementia. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is the most clinically evident
polycystic ovary syndrome 6253 suppress GnRH drive [[13]]. It is important to realize that not all anovulatory women who are obese have polycystic ovary syndrome and that some, possibly the majority, have “heavy” as opposed to “thin” FHA. From a systemic

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