New markers of insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
glucose intolerance 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperinsulinemia 5 endocrinologydiseases
metformin 6 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 3 endocrinologydiseases
ethinylestradiol 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hyperandrogenism 7 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 8 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 14 endocrinologydiseases
polycystic ovary syndrome 1 endocrinologydiseases
testosterone 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
type 2 diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
Insulin 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 640 PCOS patients are more vulnerable to develop diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance (IR) is prevalent in women with PCOS independently of obesity and is critically involved
Insulin 10627 secreted from adipose tissue and plays an important role in food intake and energy homeostasis [[23]]. Insulin stimulates leptin gene expression, enhancing leptin secretion [[24]]. The implication of leptin in insulin
ethinylestradiol 15404 concentration in PCOS patients with positive association with BMI and HOMA-IR; treatment with drospirenone- ethinylestradiol plus metformin improved insulin resistance and apelin levels. Discrepant findings among the published
metformin 13808 protein in omental adipose tissue and high plasma vaspin levels, which decreased after treatment with metformin . Positive associations with HOMA-IR and glucose were found, suggesting that high vaspin levels may be
metformin 14240 subjects, suggesting that insulin resistance and obesity enhance vaspin levels. However, treatment with metformin , diet and weight loss appeared to not affect serum vaspin concentrations.Apelin is a peptide isolated
metformin 15426 patients with positive association with BMI and HOMA-IR; treatment with drospirenone-ethinylestradiol plus metformin improved insulin resistance and apelin levels. Discrepant findings among the published studies may be
metformin 16873 found also by Hutchison et al. [[47]], who noted that RBP levels did not change after treatment with metformin or oral contraceptives, which reduced and enhanced insulin resistance, respectively, concluding that
metformin 21362 that elevated irisin concentrations in PCOS patients may be a consequence of metabolic stress. After metformin therapy, authors observed significantly decreased irisin levels and improved insulin resistance in PCOS
metformin 22600 significant correlation between ghrelin levels and insulin resistance was found in PCOS women; treatment with metformin improved insulin sensitivity and enhanced serum ghrelin levels, suggesting that its reduction in PCOS
testosterone 15141 Altinkaya et al. [[42]] with positive correlation with BMI, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglyceride and free testosterone , speculating that apelin can be used as a marker for insulin sensitivity. Conversely, Sun et al. [[43]]
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 8127 Decreased adiponectin plasma levels are associated with insulin resistance [[12]], obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases [[13]]. There are many scientific studies on adiponectin in PCOS patients.
diabetes mellitus 8966 levels, suggesting that it could be an adequate marker of insulin resistance and its consequences such as diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome.Resistin is an adipose-derived peptide hormone discovered in 2001 that potentially
diabetes mellitus 9108 syndrome.Resistin is an adipose-derived peptide hormone discovered in 2001 that potentially links obesity and diabetes mellitus [[17]]. The role of resistin in insulin resistance of PCOS is still controversial. Seow et al. [[18]]
glucose intolerance 6304 studies.The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a simple test widely used in medical practice to identify glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes. After an oral glucose load (75 g), blood glucose and insulin concentrations are
hyperandrogenism 430 endocrine-metabolic disorder in women of reproductive age. The diagnostic criteria include two out of three features: hyperandrogenism , polycystic ovaries on ultrasound and menstrual irregularities (Rotterdam Criteria 2003). PCOS patients
hyperandrogenism 2785 and the clinical presentation is extremely variable but generally includes clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism , menstrual disorders (oligo-amenorrhea) and polycystic ovaries on ultrasound.In the last years, specific
hyperandrogenism 3686 PCOS Consensus Workshop Group identified different PCOS phenotypes, separating the classic phenotype ( hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation, with or without PCO) from those with ovulation disorders and polycystic morphology
hyperandrogenism 12494 women with a negative correlation with insulin sensitivity and a positive correlation with markers of hyperandrogenism , suggesting that obesity may deregulate visfatin expression and that other factors may be involved in
hyperandrogenism 12810 reported also a strong association with total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and markers of hyperandrogenism . Later, in a study performed on obese PCOS adolescent girls, Cekmez et al. [[34]] showed a significant
hyperandrogenism 13377 could be a potential biomarker for PCOS, but there was no correlation with insulin resistance, BMI and hyperandrogenism [[35]].Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) is a novel adipocytokine identified
hyperandrogenism 19018 association with insulin resistance, suggesting that kisspeptin can be used as a specific marker for hyperandrogenism in PCOS. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of kisspeptin in metabolic consequences
hyperinsulinemia 3955 different metabolic risks, and IR is a hallmark of the classic and the ovulatory phenotypes [[5]]. IR and hyperinsulinemia determine hyperandrogenemia stimulating ovarian theca cells to secrete androgens and increasing LH effect
hyperinsulinemia 11115 years later, Erturk et al. [[26]] did not reveal significant correlation between leptin and HOMA-IR or hyperinsulinemia , suggesting that leptin levels are related only to obesity. Opposite results were obtained by Pehlivanov
hyperinsulinemia 20958 between circulating irisin with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia was found. They studied the effect of hyperinsulinemia on irisin levels with the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp: At the beginning of the assay,
hyperinsulinemia 21086 levels with the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp: At the beginning of the assay, short-term hyperinsulinemia determined a rapid decrease of irisin concentrations in both groups, and therefore, during the steady
hyperinsulinemia 24136 increased PAI-1 serum concentrations in non-obese PCOS patients with a significant strong association with hyperinsulinemia . Similar findings were observed by Orio et al. [[65]] and Tarkun et al. [[66]], suggesting that increased
metabolic syndrome 620 Criteria 2003). PCOS patients are more vulnerable to develop diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome . Insulin resistance (IR) is prevalent in women with PCOS independently of obesity and is critically
metabolic syndrome 4308 and making clinical androgen excess worse. Moreover, IR is critically involved in the development of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, that is why its treatment (lifestyle changes, insulin-sensitizing
metabolic syndrome 8988 could be an adequate marker of insulin resistance and its consequences such as diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome .Resistin is an adipose-derived peptide hormone discovered in 2001 that potentially links obesity and
metabolic syndrome 16253 were significantly associated with insulin resistance. RBP4 levels were higher in women suffering from metabolic syndrome or impaired glucose metabolism, but ROC curve analysis showed that plasma RBP4 does not appear to be
metabolic syndrome 19520 association of copeptin, the C-terminal pro-vasopressin fragment, with insulin resistance and presence of metabolic syndrome . In both groups, copeptin levels were higher in participants with metabolic syndrome with positive correlation
metabolic syndrome 19605 and presence of metabolic syndrome. In both groups, copeptin levels were higher in participants with metabolic syndrome with positive correlation with insulin levels and HOMA-IR and independent association with adiposity
metabolic syndrome 19816 adiposity and dyslipidemia, suggesting that copeptin may be a novel marker of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome . Karbek et al. [[54]] found enhanced copeptin levels in PCOS patients positively associated with fasting
metabolic syndrome 21800 resistance and hyperandrogenemia, suggesting that elevated irisin levels predict insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and hyperandrogenemia.GhrelinGhrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone secreted principally in the
obesity 713 diseases and metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance (IR) is prevalent in women with PCOS independently of obesity and is critically involved in reproductive and metabolic complications of the syndrome. Several tests
obesity 8111 mature adipocytes. Decreased adiponectin plasma levels are associated with insulin resistance [[12]], obesity , type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases [[13]]. There are many scientific studies on adiponectin
obesity 9096 metabolic syndrome.Resistin is an adipose-derived peptide hormone discovered in 2001 that potentially links obesity and diabetes mellitus [[17]]. The role of resistin in insulin resistance of PCOS is still controversial.
obesity 11183 correlation between leptin and HOMA-IR or hyperinsulinemia, suggesting that leptin levels are related only to obesity . Opposite results were obtained by Pehlivanov and Mitkov [[27]], who showed a positive correlation between
obesity 11359 showed a positive correlation between serum leptin levels and insulin resistance, independently of obesity . One possible explanation for this difference is the heterogeneity of the patients, who presented the
obesity 12129 Fukuhara and his group isolated a new adipocytokine called visfatin, which expression increases in obesity . Visfatin has an insulin-mimetic effect in mice and in vitro reduces plasma glucose levels [[30], [31]].
obesity 12528 with insulin sensitivity and a positive correlation with markers of hyperandrogenism, suggesting that obesity may deregulate visfatin expression and that other factors may be involved in this process. Similar findings
obesity 14185 patients than in controls. QUICKI was lower in PCOS subjects, suggesting that insulin resistance and obesity enhance vaspin levels. However, treatment with metformin, diet and weight loss appeared to not affect
obesity 15897 resistance, are inconclusive. Weiping et al. [[44]] found elevated RBP4 levels in PCOS patients regardless of obesity with negative correlation with insulin sensitivity, suggesting that this protein could be an important
obesity 16527 consequences in PCOS women. On the other hand, Hanh et al. [[46]] noted that RBP4 were associated with obesity but not with indices of insulin resistance and they found no differences in RBP4 concentrations between
obesity 20284 reported that enhanced copeptin levels in obese PCOS women were associated with insulin resistance and obesity .IrisinIrisin is a novel myokine recently identified in humans and mice involved in brown-fat-like development
obesity 23312 Cassar et al. [[63]], who reported that ghrelin and other biomarkers were strongly correlated with obesity rather than PCOS per se and that only PAI-1 may be a predictor of insulin resistance independently of
obesity 25033 recently recognized. Moreno-Navarrete et al. [[68]] investigated the relationship between this protein and obesity and insulin resistance, and they found that zonulin levels appear to be significantly increased in obese
obesity 25536 with the disease compared to controls and demonstrated a strong correlation with insulin resistance, obesity , dyslipidemia and severity of menstrual disorders, speculating that increased gut permeability may alter
polycystic ovary syndrome 85 Title: Journal of Endocrinological InvestigationNew markers of insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome K. PolakA. CzyzykT. SimonciniB. MeczekalskiPublication date (epub): 7/2016Publication date (pmc-release):
type 2 diabetes mellitus 8120 adipocytes. Decreased adiponectin plasma levels are associated with insulin resistance [[12]], obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases [[13]]. There are many scientific studies on adiponectin in PCOS patients.

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