Marine Algae as a Potential Source for Anti-Obesity Agents

Existing Reviews

Please note, new claims can take a short while to show up.

No claims yet.

Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
hyperlipidemia 2 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 1 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 75 endocrinologydiseases
orlistat 9 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
phentermine 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

Note: If this graph is empty, then there are no terms that meet the proximity constraint.

Review

Having read the paper, please pick a pair of statements from the paper to indicate that a drug and disease are related.

Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
orlistat 912 management of obesity. However, the only approved anti-obesity drug currently available in the market is orlistat , a synthetic inhibitor of pancreatic lipase. Other anti-obesity drugs are still being evaluated at different
orlistat 4641 currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for chronic management of obese adults: orlistat , locaserin, phentermine/topiramate (extended release) and naltrexone/bupropion (extended release) [[6]].
orlistat 4765 phentermine/topiramate (extended release) and naltrexone/bupropion (extended release) [[6]]. Of these, orlistat is the sole agent licensed for management of obesity in the UK. There is a huge projected market size
orlistat 11760 main therapeutic targets of anti-obesity drugs. The current approved anti-obesity drug in the market, orlistat , acts through this mechanism. Orlistat is a synthetic hydrogenated derivative of lipstatin, which acts
orlistat 12183 probably accounts for the irreversible lipase inhibition [[24]]. The intense inhibitory activity of orlistat has raised concern as the absorption of some vitamins may also be inhibited [[25]]. Furthermore, orlistat
orlistat 12289 orlistat has raised concern as the absorption of some vitamins may also be inhibited [[25]]. Furthermore, orlistat treatment may result in the increased amount of fecal fat in the large intestine, and may promote colon
orlistat 15692 inhibitory activities (IC50) of fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol were similar but were much lower than orlistat .Alginates are another group of seaweed compounds that have been shown to have inhibitory activity against
orlistat 17306 7-phloroeckol is the most potent (IC50 = 12.7 μM) in inhibiting the enzyme activity although weaker than orlistat (IC50 = 0.7 μM) [[37]]. In comparison, the IC50 values of the other phloroglucinol derivatives, fucofuroeckol-A
orlistat 41224 compounds have entered clinical trials, and no new drug with such activity has been marketed after orlistat [[98]]. Algal compounds with inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase could be useful as anti-obesity
phentermine 4662 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for chronic management of obese adults: orlistat, locaserin, phentermine /topiramate (extended release) and naltrexone/bupropion (extended release) [[6]]. Of these, orlistat
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
hyperlipidemia 8010 dietary intake of seaweeds and a reduced prevalence of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia and cancer [[17]]. Bioactive molecules such as polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenolic compounds
hyperlipidemia 33099 which implicates that this may reduce problems associated with high rates of lipid absorption such as hyperlipidemia [[77]].4.3. FucoidansFucoidans are a type of highly sulfated polysaccharides, consisting of high amounts
metabolic syndrome 613 12/2016AbstractObesity is a major epidemic that poses a worldwide threat to human health, as it is also associated with metabolic syndrome , type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Therapeutic intervention through weight loss drugs, accompanied
obesity 821 drugs, accompanied by diet and exercise, is one of the options for the treatment and management of obesity . However, the only approved anti-obesity drug currently available in the market is orlistat, a synthetic
obesity 862 is one of the options for the treatment and management of obesity. However, the only approved anti- obesity drug currently available in the market is orlistat, a synthetic inhibitor of pancreatic lipase. Other
obesity 977 currently available in the market is orlistat, a synthetic inhibitor of pancreatic lipase. Other anti- obesity drugs are still being evaluated at different stages of clinical trials, while some have been withdrawn
obesity 1168 have been withdrawn due to their severe adverse effects. Thus, there is a need to look for new anti- obesity agents, especially from biological sources. Marine algae, especially seaweeds are a promising source
obesity 1285 especially from biological sources. Marine algae, especially seaweeds are a promising source of anti- obesity agents. Four major bioactive compounds from seaweeds which have the potential as anti-obesity agents
obesity 1379 anti-obesity agents. Four major bioactive compounds from seaweeds which have the potential as anti- obesity agents are fucoxanthin, alginates, fucoidans and phlorotannins. The anti-obesity effects of such compounds
obesity 1460 potential as anti-obesity agents are fucoxanthin, alginates, fucoidans and phlorotannins. The anti- obesity effects of such compounds are due to several mechanisms, which include the inhibition of lipid absorption
obesity 1849 studies, especially testing bioactive compounds in long-term human trials are required before any new anti- obesity drugs based on algal products can be developed.1. IntroductionObesity is a metabolic disorder characterized
obesity 2315 pooled analysis of BMI from populations of 200 countries, a recent study projected that by 2025, global obesity will surpass 6% in men and 9% in women [[2]]. Obesity has become a global threat to public health as
obesity 3400 diabetes, artherosclerosis and NFLD [[5]].Measures to reduce body weight is part of the strategies in obesity treatment. Effective long term weight loss can be succeeded through permanent changes in dietary quality,
obesity 3921 modification by adhering to a program of diet, exercise, and behavior is the recommended treatment for obesity [[7]]. Pharmacological interventions in treating obesity are recommended for those with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2
obesity 3978 behavior is the recommended treatment for obesity [[7]]. Pharmacological interventions in treating obesity are recommended for those with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 or with a BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2 in the presence of two or
obesity 4092 recommended for those with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 or with a BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2 in the presence of two or more obesity -related comorbidities such as coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes.There are two main categories
obesity 4210 comorbidities such as coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes.There are two main categories of anti- obesity drugs, namely agents that are able to reduce or limit energy absorption, and those that aim to decrease
obesity 4423 fat mass by increasing energy expenditure or redistributing adipose tissue [[8]]. Only very few anti- obesity drugs are commercially available although many are in pre-clinical and clinical trials. There are four
obesity 4819 naltrexone/bupropion (extended release) [[6]]. Of these, orlistat is the sole agent licensed for management of obesity in the UK. There is a huge projected market size for anti-obesity drugs, which is expected to reach
obesity 4885 agent licensed for management of obesity in the UK. There is a huge projected market size for anti- obesity drugs, which is expected to reach US$ 2.4 billion by 2021 [[9]].Pancreatic lipase inhibitors are amongst
obesity 5709 animals and the experimental data may not be generalized to humans [[8]].The side-effects from anti- obesity drugs have been a major concern for their therapeutic usage. Among the anti-obesity drugs, sibutramine
obesity 5793 side-effects from anti-obesity drugs have been a major concern for their therapeutic usage. Among the anti- obesity drugs, sibutramine is the first that has been withdrawn from the market due to the side effects of cardiovascular
obesity 5982 the side effects of cardiovascular events and strokes. As such, there is an urgent need for safe anti- obesity drugs that are therapeutically potent [[10]]. Thus, there has been an increasing interest in the search
obesity 6152 been an increasing interest in the search for natural products, especially phytonutrients with anti- obesity activities. Marine organisms have been regarded as a potential source of bioactive compounds with anti-obesity
obesity 6263 activities. Marine organisms have been regarded as a potential source of bioactive compounds with anti- obesity activities [[11]]. Most of such compounds are produced by marine algae, especially brown seaweeds [[12]].
obesity 6437 algae, especially brown seaweeds [[12]]. Algal compounds that have been shown to have potential anti- obesity activities include fucoxanthin, phlorotannins, fucoidan and alginates. This review aims to provide an
obesity 6600 and alginates. This review aims to provide an overview of the advances in research related to anti- obesity effects of marine algae, with emphasis on these algal compounds as potential anti-obesity agents2. Seaweeds
obesity 6690 related to anti-obesity effects of marine algae, with emphasis on these algal compounds as potential anti- obesity agents2. Seaweeds as Food and Their Potential Anti-Obesity EffectsSeaweeds are important dietary component
obesity 8532 reports on the potential therapeutic benefits of seaweed consumption in the management of body weight and obesity [[12]].Studies on anti-obesity effects of seaweeds were conducted using whole seaweed meal, seaweed
obesity 8563 benefits of seaweed consumption in the management of body weight and obesity [[12]].Studies on anti- obesity effects of seaweeds were conducted using whole seaweed meal, seaweed extracts or seaweed bioactives,
obesity 10457 glucose and cholesterol levels.Apart from using the whole seaweed, several studies have shown anti- obesity effects of seaweed extracts based on in vitro and in vivo models. For instance, Kang et al. (2016) assessed
obesity 10582 seaweed extracts based on in vitro and in vivo models. For instance, Kang et al. (2016) assessed the anti- obesity effects of ethanol extracts from seaweeds collected from Jeju Island, Korea [[23]]. Of the extracts
obesity 11691 AgentsInhibition of lipases, especially pancreatic lipase, is one of the main therapeutic targets of anti- obesity drugs. The current approved anti-obesity drug in the market, orlistat, acts through this mechanism.
obesity 11732 pancreatic lipase, is one of the main therapeutic targets of anti-obesity drugs. The current approved anti- obesity drug in the market, orlistat, acts through this mechanism. Orlistat is a synthetic hydrogenated derivative
obesity 17027 pancreatic lipase has been patented, and there is a potential application of the compound as an anti- obesity agent [[36]].Phlorotannins are brown seaweed polyphenols known to prevent fat absorption by inhibiting
obesity 17689 activity.4. Algal Compounds with Anti-Obesity EffectsThere have been many reports on the potential anti- obesity agents derived from marine algae, particularly the seaweeds. Seaweed compounds such as alginates, fucoidans,
obesity 17938 shown to have a role in the control of digestion and thus, have been implicated as potential agents for obesity treatments [[34]]. The carotenoid fucoxanthin is another potential agent with anti-obesity effect. Fucoxanthin
obesity 18029 agents for obesity treatments [[34]]. The carotenoid fucoxanthin is another potential agent with anti- obesity effect. Fucoxanthin is found in brown seaweeds as well as microalgae such as diatoms. The anti-obesity
obesity 18132 anti-obesity effect. Fucoxanthin is found in brown seaweeds as well as microalgae such as diatoms. The anti- obesity effects of the algal compounds, apart from their pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity, are covered
obesity 18324 activity, are covered in detail in the following sections. The mechanisms of action of the potential anti- obesity compounds from algae may involve alteration in lipid metabolism, suppression of inflammation, suppression
obesity 19257 [[41],[42]]. This carotenoid is also one of the most well-studied algal compounds in terms of anti- obesity effect [[43],[44]]. The bioactivity of fucoxanthin is attributed to its polyene chromophore, which contains
obesity 19466 contains an allenic bond and two hydroxyl groups [[44]]. A summary of the various studies on the anti- obesity effects of fucoxanthin is given in Table A3.Intake of fucoxanthin-rich Wakame has been shown to have
obesity 19598 is given in Table A3.Intake of fucoxanthin-rich Wakame has been shown to have anti-diabetic and anti- obesity effects in an obese mouse model [[45]]. There was suppression of weight gain and modulation of blood
obesity 21204 expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1).Several studies have shown that fucoxanthin ameliorates obesity through its effects on lipid metabolism. For instance, feeding of seaweed extract containing fucoxanthin
obesity 21896 a group of isomers of linoleic acid, of which the trans-10, cis-12 isomer is known to have an anti- obesity effect. The WAT weight gain decreased in rats fed fucoxanthin and conjugated linoleic acid, but not
obesity 22617 phosphohydrolase, and the enhanced activity of β-oxidation, as demonstrated in a mouse model. The anti- obesity effect of fucoxanthin is also due to its induction of UCP1 expression in WAT, which enhances the dissipation
obesity 23617 fucoxanthinol in WAT suggests that dietary fucoxanthin could be a useful natural compound for the prevention of obesity .Fucoxanthin has also been shown to affect the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC),
obesity 24731 substrate 1 (IRS-1).In view of the potential use of fucoxanthin as a nutraceutical, especially for its anti- obesity activity, several toxicity studies have been conducted as part of its safety evaluation. In one study,
obesity 25518 shown in mice fed with fucoxanthin.Commercial formulation of fucoxanthin as a nutraceutical with anti- obesity activity is already available in the market. The commercial product Xanthigen contains a combination
obesity 27221 their bulking capacity. Alginates are amongst the seaweed fibers that are well-known for their anti- obesity effects. Alginates include salts and derivatives of alginic acid, a gelling polysaccharide that forms
obesity 29446 an important factor that regulates food intake and thus, it has great significance in the control of obesity . Physical properties such as viscosity and gel strength may also influence the satiety effect of alginates.
obesity 30123 of strongly gelled alginate beads compared to weakly gelled beads in human subjects [[72]].The anti- obesity effect of alginates may be influenced by the conformational structure of the polysaccharide. For instance,
obesity 30279 conformational structure of the polysaccharide. For instance, Nakazono et al. (2016) compared the anti- obesity effects of dietary acid-hydrolyzed (A-AO) and enzymatic-digested (E-AO) alginate oligomers in mice fed
obesity 30423 (A-AO) and enzymatic-digested (E-AO) alginate oligomers in mice fed a high-fat diet [[73]]. The anti- obesity effects of E-AO were stronger than A-AO in terms of reduction in body and adipose tissue weights. In
obesity 33678 anti-tumor activity [[78]]. However, there are also studies which demonstrate that fucoidans do have anti- obesity effects. For instance, fucoidans extracted from Undaria pinnatifida have been shown to have anti-adipogenic
obesity 34930 as TNFα, MCP-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes [[81]].The anti- obesity effects of fucoidans have also been demonstrated in animal model studies. For instance, Kim et al. (2014)
obesity 37292 brown seaweeds, E. cava contains the highest amount of phlorotannins [[11]].Phlorotannins alleviate obesity and obesity-related disorders through several mechanisms, including inhibition of pancreatic lipase
obesity 37304 seaweeds, E. cava contains the highest amount of phlorotannins [[11]].Phlorotannins alleviate obesity and obesity -related disorders through several mechanisms, including inhibition of pancreatic lipase (see Section
obesity 38480 transcriptional activity of PPARγ [[92]]. Down regulation of Pin1 could be a potential therapeutic target for obesity -related disorders. A phlorotannin with Pin1 inhibitory activity has been isolated from the seaweed Ecklonia
obesity 38831 negatively regulating insulin signal transduction, its inhibition is an attractive target for treating obesity [[93]]. Eckol, phlorofucofuroeckol-A, dieckol and 7-phloroeckol are potent and non-competitive PTP1B
obesity 39139 (10.82 μM) [[94]].Of the phlorotannins, eckol appears to be the most promising target compound for anti- obesity drug development due to its multiple inhibitions on pancreatic lipase, adipogenesis and PTP1B [[11]].
obesity 39468 using animal model and human subjects are worthwhile to assess the efficacy of phlorotannins as anti- obesity agents.5. Future Directions of ResearchWhile the bioactive compounds from algae mentioned above show
obesity 39605 of ResearchWhile the bioactive compounds from algae mentioned above show promising potential as anti- obesity agents, factors such as their stability and bioavailability need to be considered. There is also a need
obesity 39835 effective delivery systems for the algal compounds. For instance, the main obstacle in using alginates for obesity treatment appears to be how to introduce the fiber into the everyday diet [[34]]. While alginates have
obesity 40911 lipids are a major source of excess calories, they are the primary targets for development of anti- obesity drugs [[98]]. As such, finding new compounds with pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity will be the
obesity 41332 [[98]]. Algal compounds with inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase could be useful as anti- obesity agents. However, most of the studies on anti-pancreatic lipase activity have been based on crude extracts
obesity 41820 algal compounds are needed if potential leads are to be developed for the treatment and prevention of obesity [[34]].Bioactive compounds that inhibit gastric and pancreatic lipase activity appear to be the main
obesity 41959 inhibit gastric and pancreatic lipase activity appear to be the main target in the search for anti- obesity agents. However, molecules that affect enzymes involved in other stages of lipid metabolism should also
obesity 42428 acyltransferase (MGAT) and microsomal triglyceride-transfer protein (MTP) [[100]]. The testing of potential anti- obesity agents should be on multiple target platforms instead of a single molecular target.The area that has
obesity 42752 microflora [[8]]. Comparison of the gut microbiota of obese and lean human volunteers has shown that obesity is associated with changes in the relative abundance of the two dominant bacterial divisions, the Bacteroides
obesity 44401 [[43]].Development of bioactives from marine algae as therapeutic agents (pharmaceutical drugs) for obesity may need more intensive and longer studies, especially human trials. While there have been many studies
obesity 44525 intensive and longer studies, especially human trials. While there have been many studies on the anti- obesity effect of alginates, most have been short duration, which are not able to assess long-terms effects
obesity 45184 terms of long-term weight management [[105]]. Finally, it also needs to be established whether anti- obesity effects of seaweed consumption vary in different human populations [[12]].6. ConclusionsMarine algae,
obesity 45392 algae, particularly seaweeds as a dietary component, are beneficial in the management of body weight and obesity . Algal compounds such as fucoxanthin, alginates, fucoidans and phlorotannins have potential application
obesity 45512 compounds such as fucoxanthin, alginates, fucoidans and phlorotannins have potential application as anti- obesity agents. Such compounds could be useful as nutraceuticals or dietary supplements for body weight and
obesity 45620 agents. Such compounds could be useful as nutraceuticals or dietary supplements for body weight and obesity management. However, there is still a need for more human trials of longer duration to assess the efficacy
obesity 45761 still a need for more human trials of longer duration to assess the efficacy of such compounds as anti- obesity agents. For the development of new anti-obesity drugs, especially pancreatic lipase inhibitors, further
obesity 45809 duration to assess the efficacy of such compounds as anti-obesity agents. For the development of new anti- obesity drugs, especially pancreatic lipase inhibitors, further studies on structure–activity relationships

You must be authorized to submit a review.