A concise review of testosterone and bone health

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osteoporosis 5 endocrinologydiseases
testosterone 52 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
17β-estradiol 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hypogonadism 1 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic bone disease 1 endocrinologydiseases

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17β-estradiol 5964 elderly men.[25] Furthermore, testosterone is metabolized via the cytochrome P450 aromatase enzyme into 17β-estradiol . The aromatization process is also important for bone.[26] Several case reports indicated that men with
testosterone 58 Title: Clinical Interventions in AgingA concise review of testosterone and bone healthNur-Vaizura MohamadIma-Nirwana SoelaimanKok-Yong ChinDepartment of Pharmacology, Universiti
testosterone 432 condition causing significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population worldwide. Age-related testosterone deficiency is the most important factor of bone loss in elderly men. Androgen can influence bone health
testosterone 1292 bone mass. Human epidemiological studies demonstrated a significant relationship between estrogen and testosterone in bone mineral density and fracture risk, but the relative significance between the two remained debatable.
testosterone 2632 major cause of osteoporosis in women is estrogen deficiency due to menopause, while in men, age-related testosterone deficiency.[8] Despite the higher prevalence in women, men are more prone to be associated with disability
testosterone 3268 exponentially later in their life.[11] This is accompanied by a parallel decrease in their bioavailable testosterone level.[12] Osteoporosis is also an important side effect of androgen deprivation therapy aimed to treat
testosterone 3465 therapy aimed to treat prostate cancer in men.[13],[14] These observations highlight the importance of testosterone in maintaining optimum bone health in men. This review gathered important evidence from cellular, animal,
testosterone 3649 important evidence from cellular, animal, and human studies to present a comprehensive view on the role of testosterone in maintaining bone health, particularly in elderly men.Androgen and androgen receptor“Androgen”
testosterone 3792 particularly in elderly men.Androgen and androgen receptor“Androgen” is a broad term encompassing testosterone and its precursors which are C19 metabolites of cholesterol. The predominant gonadal androgen in men
testosterone 3909 its precursors which are C19 metabolites of cholesterol. The predominant gonadal androgen in men is testosterone , 95% of which is secreted by the testes. The remaining 5% is produced by the adrenals by the conversion
testosterone 4197 hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin with strong and weak bonding in blood subsequently.[16] Effects of testosterone on the body are mediated by its local conversion to 5α-dihydrotestosterone by peripheral tissues, which
testosterone 4273 subsequently.[16] Effects of testosterone on the body are mediated by its local conversion to 5α-dihydro testosterone by peripheral tissues, which has a greater affinity for androgen receptors (ARs).[17],[18]Androgen synthesis
testosterone 4891 negatively regulates FSH secretion. Meanwhile, LH is needed for the Leydig cells in the testes to produce testosterone . Testosterone stimulates sperm production and virilization, in addition to providing feedback to the
testosterone 5255 anabolic effects that are important for both women and men, despite that men produce significantly more testosterone than women.[20] For example, bone growth and maintenance are significantly influenced by testosterone.
testosterone 5357 testosterone than women.[20] For example, bone growth and maintenance are significantly influenced by testosterone . Previous studies showed that testosterone administration increased the width of epiphyseal growth plate
testosterone 5400 bone growth and maintenance are significantly influenced by testosterone. Previous studies showed that testosterone administration increased the width of epiphyseal growth plate of growing rats directly.[21],[22] This
testosterone 5614 effect was independent of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1.[21],[22] The effects of testosterone in maintaining bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly men are well known and have been summarized by
testosterone 5890 building the skeleton of young men and help to prevent bone loss in the elderly men.[25] Furthermore, testosterone is metabolized via the cytochrome P450 aromatase enzyme into 17β-estradiol. The aromatization process
testosterone 6237 genes suffered from severe osteoporosis,[27],[28] suggesting that at least part of the activities of testosterone on the male skeleton are exerted by its aromatization to estradiol.[29]Sex steroid hormones act on their
testosterone 7453 pubertal growth or epiphyseal closure indirectly via aromatization to estrogen.[35],[36]The effects of testosterone on bone cellsIntegrity of our skeletal system is maintained by an intricate process named remodeling
testosterone 9250 megakaryocytes, and endothelial cells in the bone marrow express ARs.[30],[31] Studies showed that both testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone stimulated proliferation of cultured osteoblast precursors in distinctive
testosterone 9278 cells in the bone marrow express ARs.[30],[31] Studies showed that both testosterone and 5α-dihydro testosterone stimulated proliferation of cultured osteoblast precursors in distinctive species.[46],[47] In addition,
testosterone 10929 proliferation and activation, thus resulting in bone loss.[58] In vitro studies showed that dihydro testosterone interacted with ARs on osteoclasts and inhibited bone resorption in human, murine, and avian osteoclasts.[59]
testosterone 12257 growth factor-alpha which inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption.[66] Thus, estrogens converted from testosterone in male could contribute to the anabolic action of osteocytes.The effects of androgens and estrogens
testosterone 12427 osteocytes.The effects of androgens and estrogens on bone cells are summarized in Figure 2.The effects of testosterone on animalsMany animal studies have been performed to further investigate the relative effects of androgen
testosterone 13278 inhibited cancellous bone resorption in orchidectomized rats, although the effect is lesser compared to testosterone and estradiol.[68] Despites this, it is unclear to what extent the effects of these hormones are pharmacological
testosterone 14353 increased the understanding of the role of ERs and ARs in male skeletal growth. The dual mode of action of testosterone is exerted either directly by the AR or indirectly by the ERα through aromatization.In conclusion,
testosterone 14496 the AR or indirectly by the ERα through aromatization.In conclusion, animal evidence suggests that testosterone exerts anabolic effects on different bone surfaces of AR with activation of both ERα and AR on cortical
testosterone 14768 not to be significantly related to bone growth and maintenance in male mice.The relationship between testosterone and bone in human studiesThe effects of testosterone on bone health in humans can be measured in terms
testosterone 14821 maintenance in male mice.The relationship between testosterone and bone in human studiesThe effects of testosterone on bone health in humans can be measured in terms of BMD and fracture risk. On the other hand, bone
testosterone 15955 and gradually in life, especially after the age of 70 years.[77]The associations between circulating testosterone and estrogen, and BMD and fracture in elderly men have been demonstrated in many studies. The US cohort
testosterone 16193 Fractures in Men Study examined the associations between nonvertebral fracture risk and bioavailable testosterone , bioavailable estradiol, and SHBG of elderly men (n=5,995, aged ≥65 years, follow-up duration =4.7
testosterone 16407 years). Each sex hormone was associated with fracture risk, but the combination of low bioavailable testosterone , low bioavailable estradiol, and high SHBG predicted fracture risk the best.[78] In another cohort study
testosterone 16667 of China (n=1,448, aged ≥65 years, follow-up duration =4 years), associations between serum total testosterone , free testosterone, estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, SHBG, BMD, and incident fractures were examined.
testosterone 16686 aged ≥65 years, follow-up duration =4 years), associations between serum total testosterone, free testosterone , estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, SHBG, BMD, and incident fractures were examined. The results showed
testosterone 16991 risk of fractures.[79] Similar to the American cohort, the combination of the lowest quartile of free testosterone and bioavailable estradiol and the highest two quartiles of SHBG predicted incident fracture the best.[79]
testosterone 17342 importance of androgens and estrogens in maintaining bone health in the elderly remains debatable. Serum testosterone and estrogens were found to be associated significantly with fracture in elderly men (n=609, median
testosterone 17610 Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study. After adjustment for confounding factors, only the relationship between serum testosterone and fracture remained significant.[80] The Sweden cohort of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study
testosterone 17790 Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study found otherwise, whereby low level of free estradiol, but not free testosterone , was significantly associated with fracture risk in older men (n=2,639, average follow-up duration =3.3
testosterone 18308 negative.[82]–[84] We postulate that the higher level of SHBG in young men is reflective of higher circulating testosterone level, thus explaining the positive relationship. However, a higher SHBG level is not accompanied by
testosterone 18431 thus explaining the positive relationship. However, a higher SHBG level is not accompanied by a higher testosterone level in older men because the negative feedback mechanism is dysregulated. Thus, the ensuing decrease
testosterone 18573 the negative feedback mechanism is dysregulated. Thus, the ensuing decrease in the bioavailability of testosterone causes the deterioration of bone health. Results on testosterone concentrations were less consistent
testosterone 18638 decrease in the bioavailability of testosterone causes the deterioration of bone health. Results on testosterone concentrations were less consistent compared to estradiol level in relationship with bone loss or fractures
testosterone 19394 analog to suppress endogenous sex hormone production, while the second group received a GnRH analog plus testosterone , and the third group, a GnRH analog plus an aromatase inhibitor, to prevent the conversion of testosterone
testosterone 19501 testosterone, and the third group, a GnRH analog plus an aromatase inhibitor, to prevent the conversion of testosterone to estrogen. The results showed that bone resorption markers were increased in the groups receiving
testosterone 19880 increased greatly in the group receiving GnRH analog alone than the group receiving GnRH analog and testosterone . Overall, these findings suggest that both estrogens and androgens play independent and fundamental
testosterone 20192 increased significantly in the absence of both hormones and were unchanged in men when receiving both testosterone and estrogen. Although estrogen prevented the increase in bone resorption markers, testosterone did
testosterone 20288 both testosterone and estrogen. Although estrogen prevented the increase in bone resorption markers, testosterone did not exert similar effects. Meanwhile, the bone formation marker, serum osteocalcin, decreased in
testosterone 20511 absence of both hormones, and its level reverted back to normal with replenishment of either estrogen or testosterone . This study postulated that estrogen may be essential in regulating bone resorption, and both estrogen
testosterone 20631 study postulated that estrogen may be essential in regulating bone resorption, and both estrogen and testosterone may be critical in maintaining bone formation.[87]Besides, a study demonstrated that a 12-week administration
testosterone 20820 demonstrated that a 12-week administration of aromatase inhibitor in elderly men with hypogonadism increased testosterone and reduced estrogen levels but did not affect biochemical markers of bone formation (osteocalcin and
testosterone 21914 hormones counteract osteoblast apoptosis and stimulate osteoclast apoptosis.Figure 1The synthesis of testosterone .Abbreviations: FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone; LH, luteinizing hormone.Figure 2The effects of testosterone
testosterone 22024 testosterone.Abbreviations: FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone; LH, luteinizing hormone.Figure 2The effects of testosterone on bone cells.Abbreviations: RANKL, receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand; OPG, osteoprotegerin;
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
hypogonadism 20797 formation.[87]Besides, a study demonstrated that a 12-week administration of aromatase inhibitor in elderly men with hypogonadism increased testosterone and reduced estrogen levels but did not affect biochemical markers of bone formation
metabolic bone disease 1749 preventing osteoporosis and its complications in elderly men.IntroductionOsteoporosis is a progressive metabolic bone disease characterized by reduced bone mass and destructive bone microstructural changes, resulting in bone fragility
osteoporosis 1657 for bone formation. As a conclusion, maintaining optimal level of androgen is essential in preventing osteoporosis and its complications in elderly men.IntroductionOsteoporosis is a progressive metabolic bone disease
osteoporosis 2543 lifetime risk of fracture at ≥50 years being 50% for women and 20% for men.[5]–[7] The major cause of osteoporosis in women is estrogen deficiency due to menopause, while in men, age-related testosterone deficiency.[8]
osteoporosis 6163 indicated that men with mutations in the estrogen receptor (ER) or aromatase genes suffered from severe osteoporosis ,[27],[28] suggesting that at least part of the activities of testosterone on the male skeleton are exerted
osteoporosis 8017 hormones. Dysfunction of these cells leads to dysregulation of the remodeling process. In the case of osteoporosis , the rate of bone resorption is greater than bone formation, leading to net bone loss.[37],[38]OsteoblastsOsteoblasts
osteoporosis 12632 effects of androgen and estrogen on bone. Orchidectomized rodent is a well-characterized animal model for osteoporosis . Following orchidectomy, bone resorption increases at cancellous and endocortical surfaces, thus reducing

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