Dietary Strategies Implicated in the Prevention and Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
hypertriglyceridemia 3 endocrinologydiseases
hypoglycemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 2 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 20 endocrinologydiseases
type 2 diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
Insulin 3 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 3 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 28358 fasting glucose levels, insulin concentrations or glycated hemoglobin and Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) [[153],[154]].Additionally, cardioprotective effects have been attributed to resveratrol.
Insulin 34939 hypertension.- Central obesity: BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 or waist:hip ratio > 0.90 (men), > 0.85 (women).European Group of Insulin Resistance (1999) [[3]]- Insulin resistance defined as the top 25% of the fasting insulin values among
Insulin 34974 or waist:hip ratio > 0.90 (men), > 0.85 (women).European Group of Insulin Resistance (1999) [[3]]- Insulin resistance defined as the top 25% of the fasting insulin values among nondiabetic individuals.Plus at
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 3766 and myocardial infarction [[13],[15],[16],[17]].Hyperglycemia, related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus are characterized by an impaired uptake of glucose by the cells, that lead to elevated plasma glucose
hyperglycemia 2598 substantial heterogeneity, commonly represented by the combination of obesity (especially abdominal obesity), hyperglycemia , dyslipidemia and/or hypertension [[2],[3],[4],[5],[6]].Obesity consists of an abnormal or excessive
hyperglycemia 11409 dietary habits [[49]]. In this sense, following a diet rich in high GI CHO has been associated with hyperglycemia , insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, CVD, and obesity [[47],[50],[51]], abnormalities
hyperglycemia 26369 insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mature adipocytes [[145]]. Moreover, quercetin may ameliorate hyperglycemia by inhibiting glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and insulin dependent phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)
hypertriglyceridemia 11461 diet rich in high GI CHO has been associated with hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia , CVD, and obesity [[47],[50],[51]], abnormalities directly related to MetS.On the contrary, a low GI
hypertriglyceridemia 35951 (men), ≥ 88 cm (women) or diagnosed type 2 diabetes.- TG ≥ 1.7 mmol/L or specific treatment for hypertriglyceridemia .- HDL-c < 1.03 mmol/L in men, < 1.3 mmol/L in women or specific treatment.- SBP ≥ 130 mmHg or
hypertriglyceridemia 36385 (Europids women).Plus at least two of the following:- TG ≥ 1.7 mmol/L or specific treatment for hypertriglyceridemia .- HDL-c < 1.03 mmol/L in men, < 1.3 mmol/L in women or specific treatment.- SBP ≥ 130 mmHg or
hypoglycemia 10932 serum glucose rises and the more rapid the insulin response. A quick insulin response leads to rapid hypoglycemia , which is suggested to be associated with an increment of the feeling of hunger and to a subsequent
metabolic syndrome 2278 coexist together [[1]]. Since then, different health organisms have suggested diverse definitions for metabolic syndrome (MetS) but there has not yet been a well-established consensus. The most common definitions are summarized
metabolic syndrome 34392 dietary strategies and bioactive compounds described.ijms-17-01877-t001_Table 1Table 1Criteria to define metabolic syndrome (MetS) depending on different organisms.World Health Organization (1994) [[2]]One of these:- Type
obesity 838 (collection): 11/2016AbstractMetabolic syndrome (MetS) is established as the combination of central obesity and different metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. This
obesity 2558 MetS is a clinical entity of substantial heterogeneity, commonly represented by the combination of obesity (especially abdominal obesity), hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and/or hypertension [[2],[3],[4],[5],[6]].Obesity
obesity 2588 substantial heterogeneity, commonly represented by the combination of obesity (especially abdominal obesity ), hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and/or hypertension [[2],[3],[4],[5],[6]].Obesity consists of an abnormal
obesity 4827 system response to injury hypothesized to be a major mechanism in the pathogenesis and progression of obesity related disorders and the link between adiposity, insulin resistance, MetS and CVD [[27]].Although the
obesity 6717 process necessary to provide energy substrate [[32],[33]]. In people who are overweight or suffering from obesity , as is the case of most people with MetS, weight loss is important as it is associated with improvement
obesity 6868 weight loss is important as it is associated with improvement of related disorders such as abdominal obesity (visceral adipose tissue), type 2 diabetes, CVD or inflammation [[32],[33],[34],[35],[36]].Moreover,
obesity 7048 [[32],[33],[34],[35],[36]].Moreover, as described above, low grade inflammation is associated with MetS and obesity . Therefore, of particular importance is the fact that in obese individuals following a hypocaloric diet,
obesity 11492 associated with hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, CVD, and obesity [[47],[50],[51]], abnormalities directly related to MetS.On the contrary, a low GI diet has been associated
obesity 19300 [[111],[112],[113],[114],[115]]. Finally, different studies also suggest that the MedDiet pattern may be a good strategy for obesity treatment as it has been associated with significant reductions in body weight and waist circumference
obesity 25692 [[143]].As most people with MetS are overweight or obese, the role of quercetin in body weight reduction and obesity prevention has been of special interest. In this sense, it stands out the capacity of quercetin to inhibit
obesity 27189 juice) [[149]]. It has shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and cardioprotective, anti- obesity and antidiabetic capacities [[150],[151],[152],[153],[154],[155],[156]].The antioxidant effects of resveratrol
obesity 29106 ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 [[152]].Finally, it has been described that resveratrol may have a role in preventing obesity as it has been related with energy metabolism improvement, increasing lipolysis and reducing lipogenesis
obesity 32574 The epigallocatechin 3-gallate present in tea leaves is the catechin class most studied [[176]].Anti- obesity effects have been attributed to these polyphenols in different studies [[176]]. The mechanisms of action
obesity 34847 albumin:creatinine ratio > 30 mg/g.- SBP ≥ 140 mmHg or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg or treatment for hypertension.- Central obesity : BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 or waist:hip ratio > 0.90 (men), > 0.85 (women).European Group of Insulin Resistance
obesity 35123 fasting insulin values among nondiabetic individuals.Plus at least two of the following:- Central obesity : waist circumference ≥ 94 cm (men), ≥ 80 (women).- TG ≥ 2.0 mmol/L and/or HDL-c < 1.0 mmol/L
obesity 35482 Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (2001) [[4]]At least three of the following:- Abdominal obesity : waist circumference > 102 cm (men), > 88 cm (women).- TG ≥ 1.7 mmol/L.- HDL-c < 1.03 mmol/L in
obesity 36223 hypertension.- Fasting plasma glucose ≥ 5.6 mmol/L.International Diabetes Federation (2005) [[6]]- Central obesity : waist circumference ≥ 94 cm (Europids men), ≥ 80 (Europids women).Plus at least two of the following:- TG
obesity 39116 molecules[[122],[124],[125],[127],[128]]Anti-inflammatory↓ CRPCardioprotective↑ eNOS and ↓ HDL-c glycationAntidiabetic↑ SVCTsCatechinPolyphenolAnti- obesity ↑ ACAD and peroxisomal β-oxidation enzymes, ↓ COMT and PDE[[177],[178],[180]]Cardioprotective↑
obesity 39804 GPX)[[142],[143],[144],[145],[146],[148]]Anti-inflammatory↓ PI3K, GLUT2, NFκB, TNF-α, MAPK, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8 or MCP-1Anti- obesity ↓ Adipogenesis through ↑ AMPK and ↓ C/EBPα, PPARγ, and SREBP-1AntidiabeticPPARγ, GLUT2, PI3K
obesity 40222 radicals[[150],[151],[152],[155],[156],[157]]Anti-inflammatory↓ NFκB, IL6, IL8, TNF-α, MCP-1, eNOS, COXCardioprotective↑ NO and Nrf2, ↓ ICAM-1, VCAM-1Anti- obesity ↑ Lipolysis, ↓ lipogenesisAnti-inflammatory↓ CRP, COX, PKC, IL-8, PAI-1Antiatherogenic↓ oxidation
type 2 diabetes mellitus 3759 stroke and myocardial infarction [[13],[15],[16],[17]].Hyperglycemia, related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus are characterized by an impaired uptake of glucose by the cells, that lead to elevated plasma glucose

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