Aortic Stiffness as a Surrogate Endpoint to Micro- and Macrovascular Complications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
diabetic retinopathy 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 5 endocrinologydiseases
diabetic neuropathy 1 endocrinologydiseases

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diabetic neuropathy 4343 demonstrated that baseline aortic stiffness predicts future installation and progression of peripheral diabetic neuropathy [[34]].Therefore, we review the recent evidence regarding aortic stiffness as a predictor of cardiovascular
diabetic retinopathy 18440 such as the central nervous system (retina) and kidney [[1],[2],[4],[17]], favoring the development of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy.Another potential explanation linking increased arterial stiffness to diabetic microvascular
hyperglycemia 19069 and collagen [[1],[2]]. Evidence implies that such modifications may be due not solely to short-term hyperglycemia , but also to carbonyl and oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, encompassing
hyperglycemia 19214 oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, encompassing that induced by chronic hyperglycemia and formation of AGEs [[17]]. Increased aortic stiffness has been associated with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)
hyperglycemia 19745 aortic stiffness progression/regression, which may be in part intermediated by AGEs formation. Long-term hyperglycemia augments the reaction between glucose and proteins and yields cross-linking of collagen, elastin and
hyperglycemia 20044 accumulation, tissue inflammation and fibrosis within the wall of the blood vessels [[52]]. Long-term hyperglycemia may, in addition, influence the arterial wall by launching proliferation of smooth muscle cells [[54]].
hyperglycemia 20398 AGEs, which may constitute a future treatment option [[55]]. Giving further evidence that long-term hyperglycemia and higher HbA1c values may be associated with an increase in aortic stiffness, pentosidine levels (a

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