Prevalence of osteoporosis in China: a meta-analysis and systematic review

Existing Reviews

Please note, new claims can take a short while to show up.

No claims yet.

Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
testosterone 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
osteoporosis 86 endocrinologydiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

Note: If this graph is empty, then there are no terms that meet the proximity constraint.

Review

Having read the paper, please pick a pair of statements from the paper to indicate that a drug and disease are related.

Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
testosterone 24653 with menopause or oophorectomy may lead to a rapid BMD reduction in women, while in men, a decrease in testosterone levels may have a similar but less pronounced effect. An animal study showed that androgen receptor-mediated
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
osteoporosis 38 Title: BMC Public HealthPrevalence of osteoporosis in China: a meta-analysis and systematic reviewPeng ChenZhanzhan LiYihe HuPublication date (epub): 10/2016Publication
osteoporosis 354 conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to obtain a reliable estimation of the prevalence of osteoporosis in China and to characterize its epidemiology.MethodsWe identified relevant studies via a search of
osteoporosis 693 and Weipu databases. Both Chinese and WHO criteria were considered acceptable for the diagnosis of osteoporosis . Prevalence estimates were obtained using random effects models. Meta-regression analysis was used to
osteoporosis 1015 plots.ResultsOverall, 69 articles were included in this study. An obvious increase in the prevalence of osteoporosis was identified over the past 12 years (prevalence of 14.94 % before 2008 and 27.96 % during the period
osteoporosis 1175 (prevalence of 14.94 % before 2008 and 27.96 % during the period spanning 2012–2015). The prevalence of osteoporosis was higher in females than in males (25.41 % vs. 15.33 %) and increased with age. Osteoporosis prevalence
osteoporosis 1468 higher in southern than in northern areas (23.17 % vs. 20.13 %). At present, the pooled prevalence of osteoporosis in people aged 50 years and older was more than twice the pooled prevalence identified in 2006 (34.65 %
osteoporosis 1860 setting also influenced the estimation of point prevalence (P = 0.022).ConclusionsThe prevalence of osteoporosis in China has increased over the past 12 years, affecting more than one-third of people aged 50 years
osteoporosis 2005 past 12 years, affecting more than one-third of people aged 50 years and older. The prevalence of osteoporosis increased with age and was higher in females than in males. Prevention and control measures have become
osteoporosis 2167 in males. Prevention and control measures have become all the more important given the increase in osteoporosis prevalence, and three-step prevention programmes should be implemented.Electronic supplementary materialThe
osteoporosis 2980 minor stress may induce fractures when bone mineral density (BMD) is decreased. Chronic pain caused by osteoporosis has been found to severely interfere with normal activities [[3]]. In developed countries, the prevalence
osteoporosis 3102 found to severely interfere with normal activities [[3]]. In developed countries, the prevalence of osteoporosis ranges from 2 to 8 % among males and 9 to 38 % among females depending on the method of diagnosis
osteoporosis 3373 males and 8 million females above the age of 50 years in the United States have been diagnosed with osteoporosis , and 34 million people are estimated to have osteopenia [[5]]. Approximately 5.5 million men and 22
osteoporosis 3527 have osteopenia [[5]]. Approximately 5.5 million men and 22 million women in Europe were affected by osteoporosis in 2010 [[6]]. Although the exact rates of osteoporosis remain unclear [[7]], this condition is becoming
osteoporosis 3583 22 million women in Europe were affected by osteoporosis in 2010 [[6]]. Although the exact rates of osteoporosis remain unclear [[7]], this condition is becoming an urgent health concern worldwide. In addition to
osteoporosis 3765 concern worldwide. In addition to increasing activity restriction and the risk of fragility fractures, osteoporosis may increase the risk of hospitalization associated with some complications, and thus imposes a huge
osteoporosis 4267 [[9]]. The cost of each hip fracture was estimated to be $34,000 to 43,000, and the annual cost of all osteoporosis -related fractures is estimated to reach 18 billion dollars [[10]].It is foreseeable that China may face
osteoporosis 4562 main reasons. One reason is the huge population that may result in a large population of people with osteoporosis in China. The other reason is that the ageing population may be associated with increased pension and
osteoporosis 4791 costs, forcing large increases in public spending, as advanced age is one of the main risk factors for osteoporosis [[11]]. The most recent nationwide osteoporosis survey, conducted in 2006, showed that the prevalence
osteoporosis 4839 as advanced age is one of the main risk factors for osteoporosis [[11]]. The most recent nationwide osteoporosis survey, conducted in 2006, showed that the prevalence rates of osteoporosis among those above the age
osteoporosis 4915 most recent nationwide osteoporosis survey, conducted in 2006, showed that the prevalence rates of osteoporosis among those above the age of 50 years were 57.6 % in males and 64.6 % in females. Almost 10 years
osteoporosis 5203 determining reference values of BMD and were conducted before 2008 [[12], [13]]. A reliable estimate of osteoporosis prevalence is necessary in countries such as China. This estimate may have a particularly practical
osteoporosis 5385 have a particularly practical significance in providing guidance for the control and prevention of osteoporosis . As China has a huge population, even modest progress in the preventive management of osteoporosis can
osteoporosis 5484 osteoporosis. As China has a huge population, even modest progress in the preventive management of osteoporosis can significantly improve population level health outcomes. For these reasons, we conducted a systematic
osteoporosis 5700 systematic review and meta-analysis to reliably estimate the prevalence and characterize the epidemiology of osteoporosis in China.MethodsAn ethical statement is not needed for this study because this is a meta-analysis and
osteoporosis 6281 and Weipu (Chinese) databases to identify population-based studies that measured the prevalence of osteoporosis from inception until October 2015. These searches used free text and medical subject heading terms and
osteoporosis 6406 inception until October 2015. These searches used free text and medical subject heading terms and combined osteoporosis -related keywords. Search terms included ‘osteoporosis’, ‘osteopenia’, ‘OP’, ‘bone mineral
osteoporosis 6462 medical subject heading terms and combined osteoporosis-related keywords. Search terms included ‘ osteoporosis ’, ‘osteopenia’, ‘OP’, ‘bone mineral density’, ‘brittle-bone disease’, ‘bone’,
osteoporosis 7454 Data from cross-sectional studies or baseline investigations from prospective studies with defined osteoporosis diagnosis criterion were included (Additional file 1).Information: Studies including metrics for sample
osteoporosis 7631 1).Information: Studies including metrics for sample size and directly and/or indirectly providing prevalence of osteoporosis with or without age-specific estimates were included.Criteria for exclusionStudies conducted in a population
osteoporosis 8589 design, area (northern or southern), region (urban or rural), minimum age of participants, number of osteoporosis cases and sample size, response rate of the survey, method of sample selection, source of sample, diagnostic
osteoporosis 8936 contacted the authors of an article if necessary. The outcome of interest was the prevalence rate of osteoporosis in different settings.Quality assessmentThe quality of each included study was assessed using the quality
osteoporosis 10266 points was considered as low quality [[15]].Statistical analysisWe estimated the prevalence rates of osteoporosis with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) overall and by subgroup. The point prevalence rates were first
osteoporosis 10953 high level of heterogeneity [[17]]. We adopted a random effects model to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and performed subgroup analyses by year of data collection (before 2008, 2009–2011, and 2012–2015),
osteoporosis 13064 36 studies were conducted in South China and 33 were conducted in North China; 39 studies evaluated osteoporosis based on the WHO diagnostic criteria and 30 evaluated osteoporosis based on Chinese criteria; and 53
osteoporosis 13131 North China; 39 studies evaluated osteoporosis based on the WHO diagnostic criteria and 30 evaluated osteoporosis based on Chinese criteria; and 53 and 56 studies focused on males and females, respectively. The sample
osteoporosis 13645 provide total numbers and did not separate participants into males and females. The point prevalence of osteoporosis varied from 1 to 86 %. Except one cohort study, most studies had a cross-sectional design. The survey
osteoporosis 14059 sample sizes. The overall quality of the included studies was acceptable.Pooled prevalence rates of osteoporosis OverallThe meta-analysis of the total prevalence estimates of studies evaluating participants with an
osteoporosis 14264 with an onset age of 15–24 years (n = 29, N = 97,997) showed that the prevalence rate of osteoporosis was 16.96 % (95 % CI: 13.26–21.02 %, Fig. 2, Table 1) with a high level of heterogeneity (99.6 %).
osteoporosis 14410 13.26–21.02 %, Fig. 2, Table 1) with a high level of heterogeneity (99.6 %). The prevalence rates of osteoporosis at onset ages of 25–35, 46–39, and 50- years were 28.09 % (95 % CI: 18.11–39.32 %), 28.04 %
osteoporosis 14678 respectively. Thus, estimated prevalence rates increased with age.Fig. 2Forest plot of prevalence of osteoporosis for total peopleTable 1Prevalence of osteoporosis according to different itemsCategorySubgroupNO. of
osteoporosis 14728 increased with age.Fig. 2Forest plot of prevalence of osteoporosis for total peopleTable 1Prevalence of osteoporosis according to different itemsCategorySubgroupNO. of StudiesPrevalence (95 % CI)(%)NI2 (%)Publication
osteoporosis 17048 23.65 % (17.57–30.35 %) and 27.96 % (19.90–36.81 %), respectively. These data indicated that osteoporosis prevalence slightly increased from 2009–2011 to 2012–2015; however, the prevalence during both of
osteoporosis 17287 obviously higher than the prevalence before 2008.Sex- and age-specific groupsThe prevalence rate of osteoporosis was significantly higher among females (25.41 %, 95 % CI: 21.54–29.49 %, Fig. 3) than males (15.33 %,
osteoporosis 17487 than males (15.33 %, 11.8–19.21 %, Fig. 4) (Table 1). In all age groups, the prevalence rates of osteoporosis increased with age. Specifically, the rate was the lowest (2.40 %) in the 15 to 30-year age group and
osteoporosis 18144 prevalence in females was higher than the prevalence in males in each age group. Gender differences in osteoporosis prevalence in different regions and areas are shown in Tables 2 and 3. The prevalence rates in South
osteoporosis 18709 gender difference was significant in rural but not in urban areas.Fig. 3Forest plot of prevalence of osteoporosis for femaleFig. 4Forest plot of prevalence of osteoporosis for maleTable 2Comparison of osteoporosis
osteoporosis 18767 areas.Fig. 3Forest plot of prevalence of osteoporosis for femaleFig. 4Forest plot of prevalence of osteoporosis for maleTable 2Comparison of osteoporosis prevalence for sex in different regions and areasCategorySubgroupNO.
osteoporosis 18809 osteoporosis for femaleFig. 4Forest plot of prevalence of osteoporosis for maleTable 2Comparison of osteoporosis prevalence for sex in different regions and areasCategorySubgroupNO. of StudiesPrevalence (95 % CI)(%)NI2
osteoporosis 19414 [23.98–38.46]4326399.60.2050.046Male1412.15 [8.51–16.34]2322298.70.1010.021Table 3Results of Meta-regression for Prevalence of osteoporosis CovariateMeta-regression coefficient95 % Confidence intervalP valueYear of publication−0.227−0.086
osteoporosis 20061 score−0.012−0.166 to 0.1510.924Age of onset0.200−0.002 to 0.0210.099Region and areaThe prevalence rate of osteoporosis was slightly but not significantly lower in urban than in rural areas (20.87 % vs. 23.92 %; 95 %CI:
osteoporosis 20468 15.62–25.06 %).Diagnostic criteria and source of populationThere were some differences (approximately 0.5 SD) in osteoporosis prevalence between studies using the WHO and Chinese criteria. The results showed that the pooled prevalence
osteoporosis 20789 than that obtained from studies using the WHO criteria (23.4 % vs. 20.35 %). The point estimate for osteoporosis prevalence obtained in the hospital setting was higher than that obtained from studies conducted in
osteoporosis 21606 Studies conducted in hospital populations were associated with an overestimated pooled prevalence of osteoporosis ; however, this result does not fully explain the high level of heterogeneity observed. We generated
osteoporosis 22141 biasDiscussionThis systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the prevalence rates of osteoporosis among Chinese males and females, characterize the epidemiology of osteoporosis in China, and compare
osteoporosis 22220 prevalence rates of osteoporosis among Chinese males and females, characterize the epidemiology of osteoporosis in China, and compare osteoporosis prevalence rates between the Chinese population and other populations.
osteoporosis 22255 among Chinese males and females, characterize the epidemiology of osteoporosis in China, and compare osteoporosis prevalence rates between the Chinese population and other populations. Several characteristics of osteoporosis
osteoporosis 22366 osteoporosis prevalence rates between the Chinese population and other populations. Several characteristics of osteoporosis in China were identified. First, the prevalence of osteoporosis obviously increased over the past decade
osteoporosis 22430 populations. Several characteristics of osteoporosis in China were identified. First, the prevalence of osteoporosis obviously increased over the past decade (from a prevalence of 14.94 % before 2008 to 27.96 % in the
osteoporosis 22824 urban areas and higher in South China than in North China. Fourth, at present, the pooled prevalence of osteoporosis in people above the age of 50 years is estimated to be more than twice the pooled prevalence in 2006
osteoporosis 22988 to be more than twice the pooled prevalence in 2006 (34.65 % vs. 15.7 %) [[18]]. The prevalence of osteoporosis among the Chinese elderly population identified in this study was very high. Fifth, the application
osteoporosis 23209 different diagnostic criteria could have impacted prevalence estimation.One of the main risk factors for osteoporosis in both males and females is ageing, which is a non-modifiable factor. The Korea National Health and
osteoporosis 23468 an obvious age difference [[19]]. A large-scale survey in Austria indicated that the prevalence of osteoporosis increased with age [[20]]. A cohort study suggested that participants diagnosed at a young age had a
osteoporosis 23603 [[20]]. A cohort study suggested that participants diagnosed at a young age had a higher prevalence of osteoporosis than those diagnosed at an older age (35 % vs. 10.0 %). It has been recognized that bone mineral density
osteoporosis 24075 consistent with these studies. Sex is another non-modifiable factor. We found the prevalence rates of osteoporosis were remarkably higher among females than males in all age groups. According to a comprehensive review
osteoporosis 24220 females than males in all age groups. According to a comprehensive review from Iraq, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 12 % among men, 3 % among premenopausal women, and 19 % among postmenopausal women, suggesting
osteoporosis 24955 androgens may regulate bone growth [[24]]. That could explain why postmenopausal women may be more prone to osteoporosis [[25]]. In this meta-analysis, we did not divide participants into premenopausal and postmenopausal
osteoporosis 25145 premenopausal and postmenopausal subgroups. However, we still saw a significant increase in the prevalence of osteoporosis in females (from 10.1 to 23.85 %). Previous studies have also confirmed that women are at a higher
osteoporosis 25266 females (from 10.1 to 23.85 %). Previous studies have also confirmed that women are at a higher risk of osteoporosis than men [[26]]. Another non-modifiable factor is race. We divided the studies into those conducted
osteoporosis 25758 (12.22 % vs. 24.61 %). These findings are in contrast with some previous studies. The prevalence of osteoporosis in North Iraq was found to be higher than that in South Iraq, and that regional difference was attributed
osteoporosis 26161 regions [[27]]. In addition to this factor, eating habits may account for some of the differences in osteoporosis prevalence in China. People in North China prefer cooked wheaten food, while people in South China live
osteoporosis 26621 lifestyle have been found to be associated with increased BMD [[28]]. Additionally, the prevalence of osteoporosis was slightly higher in rural than urban areas; this difference was probably due to disparities in health
osteoporosis 26852 resources. Osteoporosis is also a genetic disease. Those with a family history have a higher risk of osteoporosis ; however, the heritability of BMD reduction has been found to vary widely from 25 to 80 %, and osteoporosis
osteoporosis 26961 osteoporosis; however, the heritability of BMD reduction has been found to vary widely from 25 to 80 %, and osteoporosis has been found to be associated with more than 30 genes [[29]].Unlike advanced age, gender and race,
osteoporosis 27462 future. First, China has the largest population in the world, which means an increased population with osteoporosis even if the incidence of osteoporosis is kept at the current level. Second, accelerated ageing in China
osteoporosis 27500 population in the world, which means an increased population with osteoporosis even if the incidence of osteoporosis is kept at the current level. Second, accelerated ageing in China necessitates the establishment of
osteoporosis 27762 ageing population. As is well known, people aged 50 and years and above are at an increased risk of osteoporosis . As reported in 2010, there were 111 million (8.2 % of China’s population) elderly Chinese individuals
osteoporosis 28415 However, this change might result in unintended consequences [[31]].Given the current epidemiology of osteoporosis in China, preventive and control measures are needed to increase the awareness of citizens regarding
osteoporosis 28637 condition through three-step prevention programmes. Maximization of bone mass is the key to preventing osteoporosis . According to the present results, osteoporosis is an age-related disease. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation
osteoporosis 28685 Maximization of bone mass is the key to preventing osteoporosis. According to the present results, osteoporosis is an age-related disease. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation are needed, especially in females and
osteoporosis 28907 aged 50 years and above. People in the hospital setting were found to have a higher prevalence of osteoporosis ; however, samples obtained from the general population may have underestimated the prevalence of osteoporosis,
osteoporosis 29017 osteoporosis; however, samples obtained from the general population may have underestimated the prevalence of osteoporosis , and more effective screening methods are needed.This study has some limitations. First, more females
osteoporosis 29222 more females than males were included, which may have resulted in an overestimate of the prevalence of osteoporosis , as it occurs more frequently among females. Second, the onset ages in the included studies were categorized
osteoporosis 29447 differently, which we believe could affect the results in some subgroups since the point prevalence of osteoporosis was found to increase with increased age. Third, heterogeneity was relatively high in all analyses.
osteoporosis 29967 accurately. We report the results in accordance with the PRISMA statement.ConclusionsThe prevalence of osteoporosis in China has increased over the past 12 years, affecting more than one-third of the people aged 50 years
osteoporosis 30116 12 years, affecting more than one-third of the people aged 50 years and older. The prevalence of osteoporosis was found to increase with age and was higher in females than males. Prevention and control measures
osteoporosis 30297 Prevention and control measures have become more important given the increase in the prevalence of osteoporosis

You must be authorized to submit a review.