Diabetic Macular Edema Pathophysiology: Vasogenic versus Inflammatory

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
dexamethasone 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetic retinopathy 7 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 7 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 1 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
dexamethasone 36778 to the ranibizumab group [[49]].Other steroids have also been studied in the treatment of DME, with dexamethasone implants into the vitreous demonstrating effectiveness in resolving DME in refractory cases [[50], [51]].
dexamethasone 40492 intraocular steroids in treating DME (triamcinolone acetonide, fluocinolone acetonide implants, and dexamethasone drug delivery systems), concluded that intravitreal steroid injections may improve visual outcomes in
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetic retinopathy 724 9/2016AbstractDiabetic macular edema (DME) can cause blindness in diabetic patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy (DR). DM parameters controls (glycemia, arterial tension, and lipids) are the gold standard for preventing
diabetic retinopathy 2649 1.9% of patients with DM [[3]]. Furthermore, 2.64% of diabetic patients have visual sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR). The major cause of visual impairment in DM patients is diabetic macular edema (DME), with an
diabetic retinopathy 13028 What Are the Metabolic Clues in Diabetic Retinopathy and Macular Edema?The most important finding in diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the presence of hyperglycemia, which acts on different molecular pathways and damages the blood-retinal
diabetic retinopathy 16088 pathways, initiating the development of a cascade that culminates in the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy (Figure 2).Increase in polyol production is an implicated pathway in retinal neurodegeneration. In the
diabetic retinopathy 54492 drug.10. Method of Literature ResearchA PubMed and Web of Science search was conducted for the terms diabetic retinopathy , diabetic macular edema, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood-retina barrier, and optical coherence
diabetic retinopathy 56116 and the perifoveal capillary network.Figure 7Fluorescein angiography of a patient with proliferative diabetic retinopathy . New vessels are visible in the optic disc and temporal (superior and inferior) arcades, and macular
diabetic retinopathy 56336 macular cysts and microaneurysms can be observed.Figure 8Fluorescein angiography of a patient with severe diabetic retinopathy and macular ischemia. We observe the rupture of avascular zone by ischemia and also hyperfluorescence
hyperglycemia 2966 retinal barrier rupture, which is in turn secondary to a range of metabolic changes brought about by hyperglycemia [[4]]. The most important molecule in retinal barrier rupture is the vascular endothelial growth factor
hyperglycemia 13073 Retinopathy and Macular Edema?The most important finding in diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the presence of hyperglycemia , which acts on different molecular pathways and damages the blood-retinal barrier, overpowering the
hyperglycemia 14570 onset and progression of DR in both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes patients [[12], [13]]. However, hyperglycemia does not fully explain the wide range of functional and cellular changes that appear over the course
hyperglycemia 24408 can result from increased sorbitol, lactate, and phosphates in the intracellular space, secondary to hyperglycemia .Vasogenic form can be produced by many of the molecules described previously, including VEGF, nitrous
hyperglycemia 28492 causes neuroinflammation in the retina. However, various nociceptive stimuli are involved, such as hyperglycemia , glutamate, deregulation of neurotrophic retinal factors, oxidative stress, AGEs, and stress-level endothelial
hyperglycemia 32986 as a proinflammatory agentPathologically, VEGF production is altered during DR and DME, secondary to hyperglycemia , PKC activation, and AGE protein production. Currently, we use therapies based on VEGF inhibitors (blocking
hyperglycemia 53826 essential to determine which etiology of macular edema is predominant.Vasogenic changes secondary to hyperglycemia induce a rupture in the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), which begins the cascade of macular edema formation.
obesity 2216 and this number is predicted to increase by 62% by 2025 [[1]]. This increase is due to an increase in obesity together with the increased life expectancy of the world population. DM complications include macroangiopathy

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