An overview of osteoporosis and frailty in the elderly.

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osteoporosis 51 Title: BMC Musculoskeletal DisordersAn overview of osteoporosis and frailty in the elderlyGuowei LiLehana ThabaneAlexandra PapaioannouGeorge IoannidisMitchell A. H.
osteoporosis 444 remain significant public health challenges worldwide. Recently the concept of frailty in relation to osteoporosis in the elderly has been increasingly accepted, with emerging studies measuring frailty as a predictor
osteoporosis 653 predictor of osteoporotic fractures. In this overview, we reviewed the relationship between frailty and osteoporosis , described the approaches to measuring the grades of frailty, and presented current studies and future
osteoporosis 803 measuring the grades of frailty, and presented current studies and future research directions investigating osteoporosis and frailty in the elderly. It is concluded that measuring the grades of frailty in the elderly could
osteoporosis 979 grades of frailty in the elderly could assist in the assessment, management and decision-making for osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures at a clinical research level and at a health care policy level.BackgroundOsteoporosis
osteoporosis 1271 of low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissues [[1]]. In clinical practice, osteoporosis is usually diagnosed by the bone mineral density (BMD) criteria or the occurrence of a fragility fracture.
osteoporosis 1418 mineral density (BMD) criteria or the occurrence of a fragility fracture. Based on the BMD criteria, osteoporosis is diagnosed by a BMD of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean of a young healthy adult women
osteoporosis 1712 increased bone fragility and subsequent accumulated fracture risk. With decreased BMD as people age, osteoporosis becomes more prevalent among older individuals [[3]]. As the population ages worldwide, the number of
osteoporosis 2305 vertebral fractures [[5]]. In the US, there are more than 2 million fractures annually attributed to osteoporosis , including 550,000 vertebral fractures and 300,000 hip fractures [[6], [7]]. Osteoporotic fractures
osteoporosis 2554 by hospitalization, long-term care, impaired quality of life, disability and death [[8]]. Therefore osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures remain significant public health challenges worldwide.Recently, the concept
osteoporosis 2696 remain significant public health challenges worldwide.Recently, the concept of frailty in relation to osteoporosis in the elderly has been increasingly accepted, with emerging studies measuring frailty as a predictor
osteoporosis 3672 result in frailty in the elderly [[13]–[15]]. The fundamental of the relationship between frailty and osteoporosis relies on the fact that, the frailer an individual is, the greater the likelihood that the individual
osteoporosis 9600 complementary and distinct clinical information on the risk profiles [[36]].Current research investigating osteoporosis and frailty in the elderlyThere are some studies using derivations of the phenotype model or other categorical
osteoporosis 14560 in the literature, it still remains largely unknown whether frailty is a cause or a consequence of osteoporosis . For instance, some studies have reported no significant cross-sectional relationship between frailty
osteoporosis 14679 instance, some studies have reported no significant cross-sectional relationship between frailty and osteoporosis [[49], [50]], though frailty and osteoporosis share similar biological pathways and common risk factors
osteoporosis 14725 significant cross-sectional relationship between frailty and osteoporosis [[49], [50]], though frailty and osteoporosis share similar biological pathways and common risk factors such as advanced age, low physical activity,
osteoporosis 14977 [[51]]. More high-quality evidence is required to further clarify the association between frailty and osteoporosis dependently or independently of the aging process.Future research directionsThe phenotype model and
osteoporosis 16045 in the elderly. Information on assessing frailty and sarcopenia may, together or in parallel of an osteoporosis assessment tool, provide more comprehensive vision of the risks to develop hard clinical outcomes for
osteoporosis 17122 aging nature per se.ConclusionIn summary, we have presented an overview of the relationship between osteoporosis and frailty in the elderly. Measuring the degree of frailty in older adults by the frailty index and/or
osteoporosis 17326 index and/or the phenotype model could assist in the assessment, management and decision-making for osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures at a clinical research level and at a health care policy level. More evidence
osteoporosis 17652 and to further support its usefulness and application of the frailty assessment in the elderly with osteoporosis in different populations

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