Heat Shock Proteins in Vascular Diabetic Complications: Review and Future Perspective.

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vascular disease 13 angiologydiseases
ischemia 2 angiologydiseases

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ischemia 4206 leading to disruption of the blood-retinal barrier and capillary loss. Vascular damage causes retinal ischemia and overexpression of angiogenic factors, which are responsible for the abnormal retinal neovascularization
ischemia 5858 of HSPs occurs in response to stressors, such as thermal and osmotic stress, heavy metals, hypoxia, ischemia , and it is orchestrated by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), which is the master
vascular disease 3157 Micro and Macrovascular ComplicationsPeople with DM are two to four times more likely to develop macro vascular disease s, such as coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Moreover, cardiovascular
vascular disease 3232 more likely to develop macrovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease . Moreover, cardiovascular events are the predominant cause of death in patients with DM [[2]].Microvascular
vascular disease 30289 may be deleterious and that HSPC inhibition may represent a potential therapeutic strategy in macro vascular disease s. In human atherosclerotic lesions, there was a HSPC upregulation [[100]], particularly in the unstable
vascular disease 31738 migration [[103]].In conclusion, HSPC has both beneficial and deleterious effects in the context of DM macro vascular disease s. Despite the availability of specific HSPC inhibitors, it is thus difficult to pharmacologically reduce
vascular disease 38917 stressors-induced damage [[119]]. There is relatively little information on HSPA/HSP70 in diabetic macro vascular disease s; however, a recent study has shown that HSPA/HSP70 induction can ameliorate vascular dysfunction secondary
vascular disease 40547 association between levels of HSPA/HSP70 and anti-HSPA/HSP70 and both the presence and the severity of cardio vascular disease s (CVD) [[126],[127],[128],[129]]. Furthermore, lower HSPA/HSP70 levels were a predictor of future development
vascular disease 41440 HSPA/HSP70 expression is either unchanged or more often increased in diabetic complications, including macro vascular disease s. HSPA induction using a HSPC inhibitor has beneficial effects in both diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy.
vascular disease 47012 higher levels of HSPD1/HSP60 [[151]]. Another study reported that patients with both DM2 and peripheral vascular disease had anti-HSP60/65 levels comparable to healthy controls [[152]]. Similarly, we did not observe any change
vascular disease 49955 microvascular complications, most HSP (HSPC/HSP90, HSPA/HSP70, HSPD1/HSP60) were upregulated in macro vascular disease with the exception of both intra and extracellular HSPB1 that underwent downregulation. However, data
vascular disease 55613 data suggest that circulating both HSP and anti-HSP levels may be exploited as biomarkers of diabetic vascular disease s (Table 3); however, studies performed in this area have important limits. They are often conducted
vascular disease 60451 neuropathySTZ-induced diabetic miceAmelioration of DSP[[90]]Inhibition17-DMAG (HSP90 inhibitor)+Diabetic macro vascular disease STZ-induced diabetic ApoE−/− miceReduced number of atherosclerotic lesions and more stable plaques[[80]]Inhibition17-DMAG
vascular disease 60625 atherosclerotic lesions and more stable plaques[[80]]Inhibition17-DMAG (HSP90 inhibitor)+Diabetic macro vascular disease STZ-induced diabetic miceReduced lesion size and inflammation[[102]]HSP70InhibitionPFTμ/ VER (intracellular
vascular disease 63706 albuminuria; DR: diabetic retinopathy; DN: diabetic nephropathy; DNu: diabetic neuropathy; CVD: cardio vascular disease s; DSP: distal symmetric polyneuropathy; MI: myocardial infarction; AER: albumin excretion rate, TNF-α:

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