HIV infection as vascular risk: A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis.

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vascular disease 129 as vascular risk: A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysisAlternative Title: HIV and vascular disease Jose GutierrezAna Letícia A. AlbuquerqueLouise Falzon [1]Department of Neurology, Columbia University
vascular disease 1392 individuals and their risk of vascular outcomes of ≥ 50 HIV+ cases and excluded studies on biomarkers of vascular disease as well as clinical trials.Data extraction and synthesisData was extracted by one of the authors and
vascular disease 3458 comorbidities have emerged as important sources of morbidity and mortality in HIV+ populations, [[3]] with vascular disease being the leading cause of death among older HIV+ individuals. [[4]] Whether the rates of vascular disease
vascular disease 3565 vascular disease being the leading cause of death among older HIV+ individuals. [[4]] Whether the rates of vascular disease are a reflection of aging and aging-comorbidities per se or HIV-related is an area of ongoing investigation.
vascular disease 3728 aging-comorbidities per se or HIV-related is an area of ongoing investigation. Furthermore, disparities in rates of vascular disease are influenced by geographical factors that not only reflect greater prevalence of vascular risk factors
vascular disease 4039 affects predominantly underserved populations, often living in circumstances that may also influence vascular disease .[[6]] Additionally, evidence suggests that HIV-related variables such as immunological factors,[[7]]
vascular disease 4235 immunological factors,[[7]] use of cART, [[8]] and co-infection with other viruses may modify the risk of vascular disease seen in HIV+ populations.[[9]] Because the prevalence of these confounders of risk vary depending on
vascular disease 4649 systematic review and a meta-analysis of published medical literature to assess the risk of death and vascular disease among HIV+ individuals to test the hypothesis that HIV infection is a vascular risk factor, and that
vascular disease 6451 hemorrhage (ICH) reported as primary outcome. Studies were excluded if: (1) not about HIV; (2) not about vascular disease ; (3) related to cognition and/or dementia; (4) animal studies; (5) in vitro studies; (6) cross-sectional
vascular disease 8623 whether the population study reflected first-time event, recurrent events in populations with known vascular disease , and the geographical region. Finally, we extracted the hazard ratio or risk ratio in cohorts that included
vascular disease 11894 hepatitis C, drug use, and baseline cardiac disease (Table D in S1 File).b) Incidence rate of death and vascular disease in HIV+ versus HIV- populations (Table 1)10.1371/journal.pone.0176686.t001Table 1Incidence rate (per
vascular disease 24326 1.06–1.40).DiscussionThe cumulative evidence presented here suggests that HIV+ individuals have a higher risk of death and vascular disease than uninfected populations. The results were consistent even in studies that used adjusted models of
vascular disease 24799 methodology does not change the public health implication that HIV+ populations are at a greater risk of vascular disease than uninfected controls. Furthermore, the increased vascular risk is consistent across geographical
vascular disease 25044 strength to our main results. The magnitude of the risk, however, differs by region, with greater rates of vascular disease noted in HIV+ individuals in the US compared to those living in Europe. Similar geographic disparities
vascular disease 26676 contributor to the disparity in vascular risks. Traditional vascular risks confer a higher risk of death and vascular disease (Table 3), and thus represent a clear target for intervention. It is a major limitation that several
vascular disease 26813 represent a clear target for intervention. It is a major limitation that several studies focused on vascular disease did not report rates of vascular risk factors, and that only a minority of studies reported the degree
vascular disease 27163 vascular risk factors cannot be excluded. Arterial inflammation may also play a role in HIV-related vascular disease . For example, evidence exists of arterial inflammation in the aorta and brain arteries accompanied by
vascular disease 29912 and over 100,000 currently living with HIV are between 13–24 years old, [[45]] studying HIV-related vascular disease represents a major public health challenge due to high indirect costs of vascular disease in the young
vascular disease 30002 HIV-related vascular disease represents a major public health challenge due to high indirect costs of vascular disease in the young such as longer years of lost productivity and premature death attributable to vascular
vascular disease 30110 disease in the young such as longer years of lost productivity and premature death attributable to vascular disease .Supporting informationS1 FileTable A: Demographic, clinical and immunological characteristics of HIV
vascular disease 30853 Cerebrovascular risks among HIV+ individuals Table I: Vascular death risks among HIV+ individuals Table J: Any vascular disease risks among HIV+ individuals Table K: Other Vascular Outcomes risks among HIV+ individuals Table L:

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