The Role of Autophagy in Lupus Nephritis

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
glomerulonephritis 1 nephrologydiseases
lupus nephritis 44 nephrologydiseases
chronic kidney disease 1 nephrologydiseases
focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 1 nephrologydiseases

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chronic kidney disease 2234 SLE patients in the first five years of diagnosis [[2]]. It may lead to permanent renal damage and chronic kidney disease . Renal involvement early in the course of SLE becomes a major predictor of poor prognosis [[2]]. Although
focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 8217 in African Americans (odds ratio 2.57, recessive model p = 1.49 × 10−9) [[29]]. In a more recent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis clinical trial, Kopp et al. [[33]] studied the APOL1-asosociated nephropathy and APOL1 renal risk allele
glomerulonephritis 26284 decrease titer of anti-dsDNA antibodies [[78]]. P140 treatment could also alleviate renal vasculitis, glomerulonephritis and dermatitis in MRL/lpr mice. Evidences showed that P140 could bind with chaperone HSC70 protein (which
lupus nephritis 734 nephritis is one of the most common and severe complications in SLE patients. Though the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis has been studied extensively, unresolved questions are still left and new therapeutic methods are needed
lupus nephritis 1424 therapeutic drugs, there are growing lines of evidence suggesting the relationship between autophagy and lupus nephritis . In the present review, we summarize the recent publications investigating the relationship between
lupus nephritis 1554 present review, we summarize the recent publications investigating the relationship between autophagy and lupus nephritis and provide a new perspective towards the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis.1. IntroductionSystemic lupus
lupus nephritis 1628 relationship between autophagy and lupus nephritis and provide a new perspective towards the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis .1. IntroductionSystemic lupus erythematosus (lupus; SLE) is a prototype of chronic autoimmune inflammatory
lupus nephritis 2079 injuries [[1]]. Among the wide spectrum of complications of SLE, one of the most common and severe is lupus nephritis . Lupus nephritis occurs in 50%–70% of SLE patients in the first five years of diagnosis [[2]]. It
lupus nephritis 2466 disease has been known for centuries, the pathogenesis remains unclear. The current treatments for lupus nephritis rely mainly on glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants. They are partially effective and have considerable
lupus nephritis 5807 autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases, specifically in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and SLE [[23]]. As lupus nephritis results from immune system disorders, we hypothesize that autophagy may be involved in lupus development
lupus nephritis 6037 injuries. In this review, we discuss recent publications on the relationship between autophagy and lupus nephritis , with a view of providing new insights and research directions into the pathogenesis and treatment of
lupus nephritis 6155 with a view of providing new insights and research directions into the pathogenesis and treatment of lupus nephritis .2. GenesLupus is a complex disease and many factors interplay and contribute to the disease, including
lupus nephritis 7002 (Myotubularin-related phosphatase 3) [[30]]. We will point out some genes which are highly related to lupus nephritis .2.1. APOL1Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) is a BH3-only protein that can induce autophagic cell death in a
lupus nephritis 9363 [[30]] identified a significant association between a genetic variant of MTMR3 (rs9983A) and the risk of lupus nephritis in northern Han Chinese populations. Expression analysis revealed lower MTMR3 transcriptions in the
lupus nephritis 9544 lower MTMR3 transcriptions in the blood samples with this variant and in renal biopsy samples from lupus nephritis patients.3. Environmental Risk FactorsEpidemiologic studies reveal the importance of environmental factors
lupus nephritis 9680 Environmental Risk FactorsEpidemiologic studies reveal the importance of environmental factors in lupus and lupus nephritis [[37]]. A genetically susceptible individual exposed to risk environments, such as ultraviolet (UV)
lupus nephritis 10176 characteristic of lupus and there are reports that sunlight can lead to cutaneous damage and life-threatening lupus nephritis [[42]]. Kemp and colleagues [[43]] exposed keratinocytes, monocytes and T cells to UV light and demonstrated
lupus nephritis 11637 patients, implicated the important roles of EBV in lupus pathogenesis [[44]].The roles of EBV infections in lupus nephritis have also been investigated. Yu and colleagues [[48]] collected 58 renal tissue samples from patients
lupus nephritis 11760 also been investigated. Yu and colleagues [[48]] collected 58 renal tissue samples from patients with lupus nephritis and compared them with samples from patients with non-glomerular hematuria and patients with minimal
lupus nephritis 12471 EBV-negative groups. Ding and colleagues [[49]] examined 51 renal samples from young patients with lupus nephritis (aged from 6 to 16 years old) and found similar results. Positive rate of LMP1 in renal tissues was
lupus nephritis 12617 and found similar results. Positive rate of LMP1 in renal tissues was higher in young patients with lupus nephritis than that in control group and the proportion of young patients positive for anti-Sm antibody was higher
lupus nephritis 12864 These results suggested that renal EBV infection might be relevant to renal injuries in patients with lupus nephritis .Autophagy is involved in EBV infections. LMP1 could induce autophagy in B cells in a dose-dependent
lupus nephritis 16588 in a subset of SLE patients (36.1% of the 61 SLE patients) and the impairments are correlated with lupus nephritis . Serum DNase 1 is essential for degrading NETs. Existence of DNase 1 inhibitors in serum or anti-NET
lupus nephritis 16890 mechanisms of NETs degradation. SLE patients who have impaired NETs degradation were more likely to develop lupus nephritis . They also had higher titers of anti-ds DNA antibodies (which are correlated with renal disease) than
lupus nephritis 18945 autophagy could regulate macrophage functions and cell homeostasis and participated in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis . Li and colleagues [[62]] detected significantly increased LC3-II expression in spleen and kidney macrophages
lupus nephritis 20210 the glomerular filtration barrier. They are injured in many forms of glomerular diseases, including lupus nephritis . Cumulative evidence has revealed protective roles of autophagy in podocytes injured by chemicals [[63]],
lupus nephritis 21259 survival.However, there are less direct evidences showing the role of autophagy in podocyte injuries in lupus nephritis . A German research group observed that podocytes could uptake SLE autoantibodies. When stimulated by
lupus nephritis 21938 in regulating podocytes injuries. Maintaining podocyte health may be new therapeutic strategies for lupus nephritis .5. DrugsThe current treatments for lupus nephritis are mainly dependent on glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants
lupus nephritis 21989 podocyte health may be new therapeutic strategies for lupus nephritis.5. DrugsThe current treatments for lupus nephritis are mainly dependent on glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants [[67]]. They affect disease process through
lupus nephritis 23620 Inhibition of Activated mTOR Pathway in Lupus NephritisActivated mTOR pathway has been detected in lupus nephritis and has emerged as a central pathway for the pathogenesis [[70]]. Treatments with rapamycin and other
lupus nephritis 23811 Treatments with rapamycin and other mTOR inhibitors, have displayed protective and benefit effects on murine lupus nephritis [[71],[72]] and patients with lupus nephritis [[73]]. A Greek research group studied 32 female NZBW/F1
lupus nephritis 23857 have displayed protective and benefit effects on murine lupus nephritis [[71],[72]] and patients with lupus nephritis [[73]]. A Greek research group studied 32 female NZBW/F1 mice divided into four groups: (1) healthy
lupus nephritis 24138 proteinuria development; (2) untreated group (UG), in which the mice were left untreated and developed into lupus nephritis ; (3) preventive group (PG), in which mice were treated with rapamycin before they developed proteinuria;
lupus nephritis 24490 that total and phosphorylated form of Akt and mTOR were increased in the kidney cortex in mice with lupus nephritis when compared with HG mice. Rapamycin intervention (in PG and TG) prolonged mice survival, reduced proteinuria,
lupus nephritis 24890 and PG mice. These results indicated abnormal activated PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in glomerulus in murine lupus nephritis [[74]]. As this pathway is one of the most important strategies to regulate autophagy, this result implies
lupus nephritis 25050 important strategies to regulate autophagy, this result implies a relationship between autophagy and lupus nephritis .Moreover, rapamycin could act as immunosuppressant, which will also benefit patients with lupus nephritis.
lupus nephritis 25156 nephritis.Moreover, rapamycin could act as immunosuppressant, which will also benefit patients with lupus nephritis . The effects of rapamycin on lupus nephritis and the underlying mechanisms are complex. Besides its
lupus nephritis 25201 immunosuppressant, which will also benefit patients with lupus nephritis. The effects of rapamycin on lupus nephritis and the underlying mechanisms are complex. Besides its benefits, rapamycin nephrotoxicity is observed
lupus nephritis 26703 increased accumulation of p62 and LC3-II in B cells from MRL/lpr mice [[79]]. The effects of P140 on lupus nephritis indicated the potential role of autophagy on this disease.6. ConclusionsThere are emerging evidences
lupus nephritis 26870 disease.6. ConclusionsThere are emerging evidences indicating the relationship between autophagy and lupus nephritis . GWAS in human studies reveals autophagy-relative genes associated with lupus nephritis. Environmental
lupus nephritis 26958 autophagy and lupus nephritis. GWAS in human studies reveals autophagy-relative genes associated with lupus nephritis . Environmental risk factors for lupus nephritis can regulate the autophagy process. Autophagy can affect
lupus nephritis 27006 studies reveals autophagy-relative genes associated with lupus nephritis. Environmental risk factors for lupus nephritis can regulate the autophagy process. Autophagy can affect functions of diverse immune cells and the immune
lupus nephritis 27210 cells and the immune responses. The widely-used first-line drugs and innovative drugs for treatment of lupus nephritis can function as autophagy regulators. The current roles of autophagy in lupus nephritis are summarized
lupus nephritis 27298 treatment of lupus nephritis can function as autophagy regulators. The current roles of autophagy in lupus nephritis are summarized in Figure 1. Further understanding the roles of autophagy in lupus nephritis and other
lupus nephritis 27390 autophagy in lupus nephritis are summarized in Figure 1. Further understanding the roles of autophagy in lupus nephritis and other autoimmune diseases, may develop new views to interpret the mechanisms of these complex diseases
lupus nephritis 27642 provide new targets for diagnosis and therapy of autoimmune diseases.Figure 1The roles of autophagy in lupus nephritis . Abbreviations: SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; LN: lupus nephritis; EBV: Epstein–Barr virus; NETs:
lupus nephritis 27713 diseases.Figure 1The roles of autophagy in lupus nephritis. Abbreviations: SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; LN: lupus nephritis ; EBV: Epstein–Barr virus; NETs: neutrophil extracellular traps

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