Protective Role for Antioxidants in Acute Kidney Disease

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
acute kidney injury 5 nephrologydiseases
chronic kidney disease 7 nephrologydiseases
cyclosporine 1 nephrologydiseasesdrugs
metabolic acidosis 1 nephrologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
cyclosporine 11237 enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 [[10]]. Antibiotics (gentamycin) and cancer therapies (cisplatin and cyclosporine A) induce kidney tissue lipid peroxidation and renal dysfunction via increased ROS formation, and iron
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
acute kidney injury 581 and cardiovascular disease, traumatic injury/rhabdomyolysis, sepsis, and nephrotoxicity, that cause acute kidney injury (AKI), induce general or regional decreases in renal blood flow. The ensuing renal hypoxia and ischemia
acute kidney injury 1272 cell-based and animal studies. However, the benefit of synthetic antioxidant supplementation in human acute kidney injury and renal disease remains to be realized. The endogenous low-molecular weight, non-proteinaceous antioxidant,
acute kidney injury 3760 dysfunction, inflammation, and renal tubule cell cytotoxicity typically observed in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) [[5]].Although the exact mechanism whereby ROS are generated in AKI is not defined, decreased
acute kidney injury 62905 antioxidant, or both, remains to be fully defined.Figure 1Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in acute kidney injury (AKI) induce renal oxidative damage and injury. Hypoxia and ischemia perturb microcirculation, cellular
acute kidney injury 64198 renal injury. BH4 = tetrahydrobiopterin; RNS = reactive nitrogen species; CI-AKI = chemical induced acute kidney injury nutrients-09-00718-t001_Table 1Table 1Recent vitamin C intervention studies in animal models of ischemic,
chronic kidney disease 12495 inflammation promotes oxidative stress in AKI. Oxidative stress may also be important in developing chronic kidney disease , as lipid peroxidation products associate with advancing disease, as does endothelial dysfunction and
chronic kidney disease 14987 utilized to show substantial lipid peroxidation in patients with RM [[31]], and with progression of chronic kidney disease [[32]]. Increased plasma F2-isoprostanes are also found in renal failure in sepsis [[33]], and with
chronic kidney disease 15581 levels similarly increase in sepsis [[33]], and cardiopulmonary bypass [[34]] patients with AKI, and in chronic kidney disease [[35]].3. Mitigation of Renal Oxidative Stress and Therapeutic BenefitWhilst ROS perform important roles
chronic kidney disease 21449 AKI [[55]]. Allopurinol also reduces vascular oxidative stress and improves endothelium function in chronic kidney disease [[56],[57]]. Apocynin, a prototypical inhibitor of NOX, is protective against renal dysfunction and
chronic kidney disease 55041 undergone several trials, but has proved largely inconclusive in alleviating CI- and other AKI [[75]] or chronic kidney disease [[5]]. It does however show some benefit in end stage renal disease and kidney transplantation. Vitamin
chronic kidney disease 55213 stage renal disease and kidney transplantation. Vitamin E shows contrasting effects, either reducing chronic kidney disease risk, or displaying no benefit [[5]]. A clinical trial of the Nrf2 pathway enhancer bardoxolone methyl
chronic kidney disease 55401 Nrf2 pathway enhancer bardoxolone methyl on end stage renal disease among type 2 diabetes patients and chronic kidney disease , was halted because of increased mortality (cardiovascular events) in the treatment arm [[141]].4.2.1.
metabolic acidosis 54488 replacement therapy (dialysis) to remove fluid overload and uremia, balance electrolytes, and correct metabolic acidosis . Addressing imbalances in nutrient-derived antioxidants, such as vitamin C, particularly after traumatic

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