Dietary Treatment of Metabolic Acidosis in Chronic Kidney Disease.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
chronic kidney disease 2 nephrologydiseases
metabolic acidosis 13 nephrologydiseases
potassium citrate 1 nephrologydiseasesdrugs
sodium bicarbonate 9 nephrologydiseasesdrugs

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
potassium citrate 10601 [[37]]. The alkalizing effect of bicarbonate-rich mineral water was found to be similar to that of potassium citrate , which was administered in equimolar concentration with respect to the alkali load. The effect of water
sodium bicarbonate 4744 patients with CKD and serum bicarbonate levels of 16 to 20 mmol/L showed that supplementation with oral sodium bicarbonate slowed the rate of progression of renal failure to ESRD and improved nutritional status among these
sodium bicarbonate 10764 concentration with respect to the alkali load. The effect of water corresponds to that of alkali citrate or sodium bicarbonate in galenic form [[38]].6. Dietary Acid Load and Risk of Chronic Kidney DiseasePrior studies have demonstrated
sodium bicarbonate 11862 can not only be met by an alkali-rich diet but also by oral supplementation with alkali salts, e.g., sodium bicarbonate or alkali citrate [[37],[42]]. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, and blinded interventional
sodium bicarbonate 12132 nephropathy with reduced but relatively preserved eGFR (mean 75 mL/min) compared the effect of daily oral sodium bicarbonate , sodium chloride or placebo, respectively [[43]]. After 5 years, the rate of eGFR decline was slower
sodium bicarbonate 12290 respectively [[43]]. After 5 years, the rate of eGFR decline was slower and eGFR was higher in patients given sodium bicarbonate than in those given placebo or equimolar sodium chloride. Since serum bicarbonate concentrations <22
sodium bicarbonate 13005 4 due to hypertensive nephropathy, one year of dietary acid reduction with fruits and vegetables or sodium bicarbonate improved metabolic acidosis and reduced kidney injury without producing hyperkalemia [[44]]. A randomized
sodium bicarbonate 13312 total CO2 22–24 mmol/L examined the effect of 36 months of dietary acid reduction by 50% using oral sodium bicarbonate or base-producing fruits and vegetables compared to usual care on GFR [[42]]. Fruits that were provided
sodium bicarbonate 13722 spinach, tomatoes and zucchini. The study revealed that three years of dietary acid reduction with sodium bicarbonate or base-producing fruits and vegetables reduced urine excretion of angiotensinogen, an index of kidney
sodium bicarbonate 14424 that kidney protective effects of an alkali therapy can be achieved through oral supplementation of sodium bicarbonate as well as through a base-producing diet. Primarily, the prevention and treatment of chronic metabolic
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
chronic kidney disease 566 acidosis. The prevention or correction of chronic metabolic acidosis has been found to slow progression of chronic kidney disease . Dietary composition can strongly affect acid–base balance. Major determinants of net endogenous acid
chronic kidney disease 2089 in free and fixed forms, especially titratable acids and ammonia, into the urine. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) include race, gender, age, and family history. Moreover, smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes
metabolic acidosis 449 kidney disease and reduced glomerular filtration rate are risk factors for the development of chronic metabolic acidosis . The prevention or correction of chronic metabolic acidosis has been found to slow progression of chronic
metabolic acidosis 509 factors for the development of chronic metabolic acidosis. The prevention or correction of chronic metabolic acidosis has been found to slow progression of chronic kidney disease. Dietary composition can strongly affect
metabolic acidosis 913 counterbalanced by the metabolism of base-producing foods like fruits and vegetables. Alkali therapy of chronic metabolic acidosis can be achieved by providing an alkali-rich diet or oral administration of alkali salts. The primary
metabolic acidosis 2602 capacity to synthesize ammonia and excrete hydrogen ions results in an increase in the prevalence of metabolic acidosis in CKD [[6],[7]]. 2. Metabolic AcidosisMetabolic acidosis is an acid–base disorder, which is characterized
metabolic acidosis 2885 excretion, resulting primarily in an initial decrease in serum bicarbonate concentration [[8]]. Clinically, metabolic acidosis is defined as serum bicarbonate concentration <22 mmol/L [[1],[9]]. However, acid retention can occur
metabolic acidosis 3081 acid retention can occur even when the serum bicarbonate level is apparently normal [[10]]. Chronic metabolic acidosis is common in advanced stages of CKD. A serum bicarbonate <22 mmol/L has been found in approximately
metabolic acidosis 3298 approximately 19% of patients with a GFR of 15–29 mL/min/1.73 m2 [[11]]. The clinical consequences of chronic metabolic acidosis include increased muscle protein catabolism and reduction of protein synthesis [[11],[12],[13]], disturbed
metabolic acidosis 3778 muscle mass and improve bone metabolism [[13],[16],[17],[18]].Moreover, studies suggest that chronic metabolic acidosis may be associated with further deterioration and progression of CKD and that correction of acidosis
metabolic acidosis 5072 increased risk of heart failure events and mortality [[22]].As a progression factor of CKD, chronic metabolic acidosis requires correction. In patients with CKD and serum bicarbonate concentrations <22 mmol/L, clinical
metabolic acidosis 5334 therapy to maintain the value within the normal range [[9],[23]]. The prevention and treatment of chronic metabolic acidosis should primarily be achieved through diet modifications. Changes in dietary intake are reasonable even
metabolic acidosis 13033 nephropathy, one year of dietary acid reduction with fruits and vegetables or sodium bicarbonate improved metabolic acidosis and reduced kidney injury without producing hyperkalemia [[44]]. A randomized study in 108 patients
metabolic acidosis 13977 preserved eGFR. The study supported that dietary acid reduction is kidney protective in CKD patients with metabolic acidosis . Since many fruits and vegetables are relatively rich in potassium, patients with impaired renal function
metabolic acidosis 14536 bicarbonate as well as through a base-producing diet. Primarily, the prevention and treatment of chronic metabolic acidosis should be realized by dietary modifications, because the high protein content of the usual diet contributes

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