Sexual dimorphism in bacterial infections.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
campylobacteriosis 1 infectiousdiseases
cholera 4 infectiousdiseases
isoniazid 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
tuberculosis 18 infectiousdiseases
pneumonia 18 infectiousdiseases
pyrazinamide 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
Q fever 3 infectiousdiseases
gonorrhea 1 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 3 infectiousdiseases
legionellosis 1 infectiousdiseases
trachoma 3 infectiousdiseases
borreliosis 4 infectiousdiseases
diarrhea 3 infectiousdiseases
meningitis 2 infectiousdiseases
typhoid fever 1 infectiousdiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
isoniazid 31115 response in males [[106], [107]]. Furthermore, the plasmatic levels of the anti-tuberculosis drugs, isoniazid , and pyrazinamide are lower in adult males than in females. This could be related to the worst outcome
pyrazinamide 31130 males [[106], [107]]. Furthermore, the plasmatic levels of the anti-tuberculosis drugs, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide are lower in adult males than in females. This could be related to the worst outcome in the treated
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
Q fever 11261 pelvic inflammatory disease[[234]]ListeriosisWomenListeria monocytogenesBacteremia, meningitis[[241]] Q fever MenCoxiella burnetiiFever, granulomatous hepatitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, and pneumonia[[243]]Wound
Q fever 65429 shift of Th1 to Th2-response [[242]].On the contrary, infection produced by Coxiella burnetii, known as Q fever , is a disease that preponderantly affects males. Patients with Q fever present diverse symptoms such
Q fever 65500 Coxiella burnetii, known as Q fever, is a disease that preponderantly affects males. Patients with Q fever present diverse symptoms such as fever, granulomatous hepatitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, and pneumonia,
borreliosis 10907 [173]–[176]]Urinary tract infectionsWomenEscherichia coliAcute cystitis, inflammation, and sepsis[[229], [231]]Lyme borreliosis WomenBorrelia burgdorferiErythema migrans and facial nerve palsy[[232], [233]]Sexually transmitted infectionsWomenChlamydia
borreliosis 60644 turn produce a pH rise that allows the growth of Enterobacteriaceae, particularly E. coli [[231]].Lyme borreliosis , a vector-borne inflammatory disease produced by Borrelia burgdorferi, is more common in women in the
borreliosis 61393 and recurrence of B. burgdorferi in this population [[232]]. Neurological form of disease, Lyme neuro borreliosis , is also common in female patients, mainly in girls, who usually present facial nerve palsy; in contrast,
borreliosis 62014 it has been reported after stimulation with LPS or mitogens [[33]]. Contradictory findings in Lyme borreliosis also can be related with differences in sex hormonal levels between women and men, children and adults,
campylobacteriosis 15879 clarify and/or refuse the role played by environmental and behavioral factors in sexual dimorphism of campylobacteriosis .In addition, infections caused by Helicobacter pylori affect predominantly males, and its outcomes,
cholera 22226 oyster ingestion. Vibrio species that commonly causes gastroenteritis are Vibrio parahaemolyticus. V. cholera e, V. hollisae, V. mimicus, and V. fluvialis, infections with a reported male-female incidence ratio
cholera 22354 mimicus, and V. fluvialis, infections with a reported male-female incidence ratio of 1.7:1 [[57]]. V. cholera e is the most representative species in the genus, with the highest proportion of cases of Vibrio-associated
cholera 22596 their toxigenic strains belonging to O-group (mainly serogroups O1 and O139) are the cause of epidemic cholera , with 2.86 million cases and 95,000 deaths annually [[57], [58]]. In spite of the evident male prevalence,
cholera 66911 skin lesions are represented by V. vulnificus, V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, and non-O1 V. cholera e. Wound infections by Vibrio spp. mainly occur in men over 50 years of age with a preexisting lesion
diarrhea 18994 involved [[46]].Clostridium difficile infections include diseases ranging from antibiotic-associated diarrhea to fulminant colitis, which are often acquired in hospitals and are associated commonly with men exposed
diarrhea 20570 infection provokes enteritis, enterocolitis, and gastroenterocolitis, which symptoms include bloody diarrhea , fever, abdominal pain, and vomiting; chronic cases of infection develop necrotic enteritis and purulent
diarrhea 23807 syndrome (IBS), a chronic disorder that causes symptoms as cramping, pain, bloating, flatulence, nausea, diarrhea , and constipation [[62], [63]]. In turn, aggravation of IB is associated with alterations of gastrointestinal
gonorrhea 11140 infectionsWomenChlamydia trachomatisInfertility, ectopic pregnancy, and pelvic inflammatory disease[[235], [237]]Neisseria gonorrhea Gonorrhea, pelvic inflammatory disease[[234]]ListeriosisWomenListeria monocytogenesBacteremia, meningitis[[241]]Q
infectious disease 398 /2018AbstractBackgroundSex differences are important epidemiological factors that impact in the frequency and severity of infectious disease s. A clear sexual dimorphism in bacterial infections has been reported in both humans and animal models.
infectious disease 2687 bacterial infections, as well as their potential as therapeutic targets.BackgroundFrequency and severity of infectious disease s clearly vary between men and women. In general, males are more susceptible to diverse bacterial illnesses
infectious disease 29502 in respiratory tract infections. In humans, tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death from infectious disease s. It was diagnosed in about 8.6 million people in 2012, and it has been predicted that one third of
legionellosis 36079 contamination in the air conditioning systems [[128]–[130]]. It has been reported a strong association of legionellosis with male gender in many European, American, and Asian countries, as well as in Australia, and in fact,
meningitis 11244 gonorrheaGonorrhea, pelvic inflammatory disease[[234]]ListeriosisWomenListeria monocytogenesBacteremia, meningitis [[241]]Q feverMenCoxiella burnetiiFever, granulomatous hepatitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, and pneumonia[[243]]Wound
meningitis 64127 spleen, the liver, and the bloodstream causing bacteremia and, in some cases, reaches the brain producing meningitis [[240]]. Listeriosis predominantly affects females, and it has been mainly attributed to increased levels
pneumonia 10483 coliHemolytic–uremic syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome[[59], [60]]Respiratory tract infectionsMenStreptococcus pneumonia eCommunity-acquired pneumonia[[79]]Mycobacterium tuberculosisTuberculosis[[93]–[100]]Legionella spp.Legionnaires’
pneumonia 10512 bowel syndrome[[59], [60]]Respiratory tract infectionsMenStreptococcus pneumoniaeCommunity-acquired pneumonia [[79]]Mycobacterium tuberculosisTuberculosis[[93]–[100]]Legionella spp.Legionnaires’ disease[[131],
pneumonia 11351 meningitis[[241]]Q feverMenCoxiella burnetiiFever, granulomatous hepatitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, and pneumonia [[243]]Wound infectionsMenMycobacterium marinumSwimming-pool granuloma or fish-tank granuloma disease[[245]]Sexual
pneumonia 25310 pulmonary fibrosis, and asthma, and this is also observed for community-acquired and nosocomial bacterial pneumonia , in which severity and higher risk for mortality are associated with male patients [[66]–[69]]. In
pneumonia 28070 estradiol promotes an increase of IgA transport into the mucosa of the respiratory tract protecting against pneumonia [[78]]. More studies are required to elucidate the beneficial or detrimental effects of estradiol and
pneumonia 28278 and other sexual hormones during respiratory tract inflammation.The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia is higher in men than in women, and this incidence increases by age, especially in infections with Streptococcus
pneumonia 28401 men than in women, and this incidence increases by age, especially in infections with Streptococcus pneumonia e, Streptococcus pyogenes, Chlamydophila pneumonia, and Legionella pneumophila [[79]–[86]]. On the
pneumonia 28451 age, especially in infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Chlamydophila pneumonia , and Legionella pneumophila [[79]–[86]]. On the other hand, a gender preference for pneumonia caused
pneumonia 28547 Chlamydophila pneumonia, and Legionella pneumophila [[79]–[86]]. On the other hand, a gender preference for pneumonia caused by drug-resistant pathogens such as P. aeruginosa, extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-positive
pneumonia 28891 studied population [[87]–[89]]. Females have a 57% reduced risk to acquire ventilator-associated pneumonia after mechanical ventilation, which has been reported to affect 72.7% of males, mainly due to Gram-negative
pneumonia 29151 contrast, women under the age of 50 years are more susceptible to respiratory infections by Mycoplasma pneumonia e [[92]]. For a comprehensive and complete review of the incidence and severity in respiratory tract
pneumonia 35785 habitats, as well as in moist soil and mud [[126], [127]]. Legionellosis is mainly characterized by pneumonia with a high incidence of mortality rates, and although it is frequently observed as sporadic cases,
pneumonia 38095 pulmonary infection [[149]]. Furthermore, estradiol administration increases the severity of P. aeruginosa pneumonia in adult CF male mice by upregulating IL-17 signaling and promoting lung tissue damage [[150]].Interestingly,
pneumonia 39344 there is a decrease in survival rate that is more pronounced in female than in male mice in Klebsiella pneumonia e lung infection, which is in contrast to the lower survival rate observed in male mice in ozone-free
pneumonia 40058 has been proposed that female gonadal hormones (estradiol and progesterone) are protective against K. pneumonia e pulmonary infection; however, the protective effect is lost after ozone exposure, and even leads to
pneumonia 41031 clearly demonstrates an important role of hormone receptors in the gender bias of P. aeruginosa induced pneumonia [[147]]. Therefore, further studies are required to elucidate the participation of hormone receptors
pneumonia 52856 faecalis by increasing TNF-α and NO levels [[212]]. Male mice are more susceptible to Streptococcus pneumonia e intravenous administration than females by showing higher mortality rate, weight loss, and body temperature
pneumonia 65604 fever present diverse symptoms such as fever, granulomatous hepatitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, and pneumonia , which occur more frequently in men. Ovariectomized mice infected with C. burnetti and treated with
trachoma 11042 burgdorferiErythema migrans and facial nerve palsy[[232], [233]]Sexually transmitted infectionsWomenChlamydia trachoma tisInfertility, ectopic pregnancy, and pelvic inflammatory disease[[235], [237]]Neisseria gonorrheaGonorrhea,
trachoma 62382 have female predominance; as it is the case of infections of the genital tract caused by Chlamydia trachoma tis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Susceptibility to both diseases is related to estradiol and progesterone
trachoma 62718 components of the immune system [[25], [234], [235]]. An example of the influence of estrogens in C. trachoma tis infection is observed when infected HeLa cells are treated with 17-β-estradiol or with diethylstilbesterol
tuberculosis 10541 [60]]Respiratory tract infectionsMenStreptococcus pneumoniaeCommunity-acquired pneumonia[[79]]Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tuberculosis[[93]–[100]]Legionella spp.Legionnaires’ disease[[131], [132], [141], [133]–[140]]Bloodstream
tuberculosis 29326 and severity in respiratory tract infections refer to [[67]].Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis , is one of the most studied models regarding sexual dimorphism in respiratory tract infections. In humans,
tuberculosis 29446 of the most studied models regarding sexual dimorphism in respiratory tract infections. In humans, tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death from infectious diseases. It was diagnosed in about 8.6 million
tuberculosis 29709 one third of the population in the world has a latent infection [[93]]. Some of the risk factors for tuberculosis infection are malnutrition, smoking, diabetes, and sex [[94]]. Although the prevalence of tuberculosis
tuberculosis 29812 tuberculosis infection are malnutrition, smoking, diabetes, and sex [[94]]. Although the prevalence of tuberculosis in males depends on the geographic region, there is a general trend for the male-to-female ratio affecting
tuberculosis 30570 that could be associated with an uncontrolled inflammatory response and a poor prognosis during M. tuberculosis infection [[105]]. During tuberculosis infection, there is also a differential immune response characterized
tuberculosis 30609 uncontrolled inflammatory response and a poor prognosis during M. tuberculosis infection [[105]]. During tuberculosis infection, there is also a differential immune response characterized by females showing higher levels
tuberculosis 30921 Derived Growth Factor Subunit B (PDGFB), serum C-reactive protein, and specific antibodies against M. tuberculosis than their gender counterpart, highlighting a stronger innate and humoral immune response in males [[106],
tuberculosis 31095 and humoral immune response in males [[106], [107]]. Furthermore, the plasmatic levels of the anti- tuberculosis drugs, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide are lower in adult males than in females. This could be related to
tuberculosis 31432 children or young adolescents, suggesting the participation of sex hormones in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis [[109], [110]]. In line with this, it has been reported that the prevalence of tuberculosis associated
tuberculosis 31524 pathogenesis of tuberculosis [[109], [110]]. In line with this, it has been reported that the prevalence of tuberculosis associated deaths in a mentally retarded population was lower in medically castrated males (8.1%) compared
tuberculosis 31790 [[111]]. Women who underwent medical oophorectomy present an increased risk of mortality because of tuberculosis [[112]]. However, it has been also demonstrated that this male bias to tuberculosis infection is due
tuberculosis 31874 mortality because of tuberculosis [[112]]. However, it has been also demonstrated that this male bias to tuberculosis infection is due to genetic factors, illustrated by X-linked TLR8 gene polymorphisms that have been
tuberculosis 32031 illustrated by X-linked TLR8 gene polymorphisms that have been associated with increased susceptibility to tuberculosis in male children [[113]], as well as by the X-linked Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases
tuberculosis 33127 tract.Animal models have been used to further investigate the role of sex hormones in the pathophysiology of tuberculosis . Early studies demonstrated that male mice are more susceptible than female mice to infection with M.
tuberculosis 33589 treatment in ovariectomized mice exposed to M. avium [[117]–[119]]. Sex bias has also been reported in M. tuberculosis mice infection, where male mice are at greater risk of mortality and show higher numbers of bacilli
tuberculosis 34083 acetate (DMPA), a progestin commonly used as a contraceptive, decreases the cytokine response to M. tuberculosis in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice [[121]].Regarding other animal models, it has been reported that bovine tuberculosis
tuberculosis 34195 in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice [[121]].Regarding other animal models, it has been reported that bovine tuberculosis caused by M. bovis also displays a worse outcome, higher mortality rate, and more rapid progression
typhoid fever 12177 influenced by the above mentioned behavioral dissimilarities between women and men. This is the case of typhoid fever and its complication: typhoid ileal perforation (TIP) [[30]]. TIP is characterized by an exacerbated

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