Molecular tools and genetic markers for the generation of transgenic sexing strains in Anopheline mosquitoes

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malaria 564 countries, predominantly in Africa, Asia and the Americas. Since the year 2000, a concerted effort to combat malaria has reduced its incidence by more than 40%, primarily due to the use of insecticide-treated bednets,
malaria 1049 insecticides. Novel strategies that are sustainable and cost-effective are needed to help usher in an era of malaria elimination. The most effective strategies thus far have focussed on control of the mosquito vector.
malaria 1444 males that are released en masse. The technique and its derivatives are currently not appropriate for malaria control because it is difficult to sterilise males without compromising their ability to mate, and because
malaria 1863 techniques provide the tools necessary to produce mosquito sexing strains, which promise to improve current malaria -control programs and pave the way for new ones. In this review, the progress made in the development
malaria 2063 development of transgenic sexing strains for the control of Anopheles gambiae, a major vector of human malaria , is discussed.An evolutionary perspective of sex and sex determination in insectsReproduction is a fundamental
malaria 4535 sex.Anopheles gambiae is a member of the Anopheles gambiae complex that includes the principal vectors of human malaria [[8]]. Due to the burden imposed by these mosquitoes, efforts have been made to characterise their biology
malaria 5541 downstream member of the sex determination cascade known in anopheline mosquitoes [[15]]. In the Asian malaria vector An. stephensi, a small protein named GUY1 acts as a primary signal that affects embryonic development
malaria 7619 albopictus in northern Italy [[29]]. However, the technique and its derivatives remain inappropriate for malaria control, due to the difficulty to sterilise males without compromising their ability to mate and the
malaria 11517 from an autosomal location.Mosquito sexing strains are urgently needed for the improvement of existing malaria control strategies and for the development of new ones [[46]]. In the following paragraphs progress
malaria 18235 genes of interest specifically onto the Y chromosome, the Y-attP line represents a promising tool for malaria vector control. For example, site-specific integration onto the Y chromosome would benefit the efficiency
malaria 23574 genetic introgression across sibling mosquito species.Anopheles arabiensis is another important vector of malaria . Rearing this species in lab settings is widely known to be challenging and genome sequences have not
malaria 26380 insecticide resistance. Furthermore, a Y-linked male-biased trait could be tailored to benefit novel malaria genetic control programs based on sex-ratio distortion techniques. Finally, the sustainable and effective
malaria 26505 programs based on sex-ratio distortion techniques. Finally, the sustainable and effective control of malaria is achievable if the strategies discussed here are advanced through a series of feasibility, safety,
malaria 26839 basis for the successful application of transgenic vector control in the field to win the fight against malaria

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