An update on the human and animal enteric pathogen Clostridium perfringens

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Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
gentamicin 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
pneumonia 2 infectiousdiseases
penicillin G 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
tetracycline 7 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
clindamycin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
diarrhea 1 infectiousdiseases
dysentery 1 infectiousdiseases
erythromycin 3 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
gas gangrene 15 infectiousdiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
clindamycin 29597 to be resistant against tetracycline (MIC > 32 μg/ml), erythromycin (MIC > 128 μg/ml), clindamycin (MIC > 64 μg/ml), and lincomycin (MIC > 128 μg/ml)[84]. A PCR-based AMR study on 160 environmental
erythromycin 29558 from porcine faeces were demonstrated to be resistant against tetracycline (MIC > 32 μg/ml), erythromycin (MIC > 128 μg/ml), clindamycin (MIC > 64 μg/ml), and lincomycin (MIC > 128 μg/ml)[84].
erythromycin 29967 commonly found tetA(P)(53%), tetB(P)(22%), and tet(M)(8%)[85].Macrolide and Lincosamide resistance (mainly erythromycin and lincomycin) appears widespread[86], and therefore is considered ineffective in treating C. perfringens
erythromycin 30284 perfringens isolated from diarrheal neonatal piglets in Thailand, where higher resistance was observed for erythromycin , lincomycin and tylosin[87].Recent WGS studies on AMR genes have detected mepA (multidrug-resistance
gentamicin 23011 proposed to play an important role in pre-term NEC in potential synergistic effects with antibiotic gentamicin [62].Epsilon-toxinThis deadly toxin, is plasmid-encoded by etx gene C. perfringens type B and D strains,
gentamicin 30722 encoded[88]. Anti-defensin gene mprF (possibly involved in multidrug-resistant, including resistance against gentamicin ) was recently reported in a large-scale genomic study of C. perfringens (n = 56 strains) to be present
penicillin G 28806 perfringens were tested, and found to possess ‘some degree’ of resistance to tetracycline, thus penicillin G (or, benzylpenicillin) was recommended as the drug of choice for treating Clostridial infection[81].
tetracycline 8977 1950s). Importantly, prevalence of aminoglycoside-resistant/anti-defensin gene mprF (100% detection), and tetracycline -resistant efflux protein genes tetA (P) (>75% detection) encoded within the genomes underlined the potential
tetracycline 12975 plasmid encoded. These netB-encoded plasmids can potentially carry other virulence genes including tetracycline resistance genes (e.g., pJIR3537 and pCW3) and cpb2 gene (e.g., pJIR3844)[24].Notably, many toxin plasmids
tetracycline 28787 when 11 strains of C. perfringens were tested, and found to possess ‘some degree’ of resistance to tetracycline , thus penicillin G (or, benzylpenicillin) was recommended as the drug of choice for treating Clostridial
tetracycline 28937 benzylpenicillin) was recommended as the drug of choice for treating Clostridial infection[81]. Plasmid-carrying tetracycline resistance (tet components) in C. perfringens was genetically shown for the first time in porcine samples
tetracycline 29143 porcine samples (three strains)[82]. Tetracycline resistance elements tetA(P), was then detected in 81 tetracycline -resistance C. perfringens strains (100%), with 93% of these strains carrying a secondary resistance
tetracycline 29520 multiple strains (n = 7) isolated from porcine faeces were demonstrated to be resistant against tetracycline (MIC > 32 μg/ml), erythromycin (MIC > 128 μg/ml), clindamycin (MIC > 64 μg/ml),
tetracycline 30480 (multidrug-resistance gene), using various public AMR databases on C. perfringens strains[88], and also tetracycline resistant genes tetA(P), tetB(P) and tet38. The genes, mprF and rpoB (rifampin-resistant) have also
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diarrhea 30203 is supported by a recent multidrug-resistance study of 260 strains of C. perfringens isolated from diarrhea l neonatal piglets in Thailand, where higher resistance was observed for erythromycin, lincomycin and
dysentery 6209 certain hosts and diseases e.g., type B (particularly the β-toxin it harbours), is exclusively linked to dysentery in sheep, and rarely seen in other hosts[9]. Food-poisoning associated CPE was genotyped typically in
gas gangrene 1689 aerogenes capsulatus, ‘aerogenes’ literally means ‘air-producing’ in Latin) was later linked to gas gangrene symptoms seen in British and French soldiers during World War I[2].C. perfringens is associated with
gas gangrene 2467 associated with various significant systemic and enteric diseases, in both humans and animals, including gas gangrene (Clostridial myonecrosis), food poisoning and non-foodborne diarrhoea, and enterocolitis[4],[5]. Importantly,
gas gangrene 7117 ever complete genome sequence of C. perfringens (strain 13) was published in early 2002; a historical gas gangrene -associated strain from 1939 (this also represents the first Gram-positive anaerobic pathogen to be sequenced)[12].
gas gangrene 14128 capacity to effect various histotoxic (i.e., toxigenic to tissues) infections in humans, including gas gangrene in contaminated wounds, gastroenteritis (including foodborne and non-foodborne diarrhoea) in human adults,
gas gangrene 15197 aerophillic environments (i.e., adult/pre-term infant gut), and additionally oxygen-exposed tissues (such as gas gangrene ), which may facilitate bacterial host-to-host transmission[30].SporulationC. perfringens is a spore-former,
gas gangrene 18335 infection, as in the cases of avian NE, bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis (could be <5 h), and gas gangrene . Also, as C. perfringens has a two-fold quicker generation time, when compared to intestinal commensals
gas gangrene 18737 gut colonisation.Disease initiationsHistotoxic gas productionClostridial myonecrosis (better known as gas gangrene ), is accompanied by profuse gas production, which could in theory be the mechanical determinant of tissue
gas gangrene 19445 infection, such as infant NEC (discussed in more detail below), which symptoms significantly mimic those of gas gangrene ; necrosis of tissue accompanied by abundant gas production[46],[47].Toxins and virulent enzymesPresently,
gas gangrene 20059 hydrolyse cell membrane phospholipids, which eventually leads to cell necrosis; a key characteristic in gas gangrene . Indeed, this toxin is essential for gas gangrene pathology, as shown in an in vivo myonecrosis model[48].
gas gangrene 20109 eventually leads to cell necrosis; a key characteristic in gas gangrene. Indeed, this toxin is essential for gas gangrene pathology, as shown in an in vivo myonecrosis model[48]. Mechanistically, α-toxin may play three major
gas gangrene 20235 shown in an in vivo myonecrosis model[48]. Mechanistically, α-toxin may play three major roles in gas gangrene pathology; firstly, it is able to impact the transferring of immune cells such as neutrophils to infected
gas gangrene 21781 cholesterol-comprising cell membranes. This toxin has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of gas gangrene , and haemorrhagic enteritis in calves[55],[56]. Notably, PFO shares structural homology with similar
gas gangrene 24820 al.[67] indicated that κ-toxin is not a major determinant in a Clostridial myonecrosis mouse model ( gas gangrene ), despite its capacity to hydrolyse collagen.Enterotoxin (CPE)CPE (encoding gene cpe) is recognised
gas gangrene 26519 (β-toxin and CPE) mechanisms, potentially enhancing C. perfringens pathogenesis[74]. Notably, in a gas gangrene mouse model, NanI and NanJ are not essential for virulence[75].NetBNetB, a pore-forming toxin (encoded
gas gangrene 40755 A-C. perfringens were isolated from necrotic tissues in many NEC cases. Notably, it was even called ‘ gas gangrene of the bowel’ owing to its reflection of the highly similar diseased histology with the infamous tissue
pneumonia 45572 and genomic analyses, particularly those focussing on other gut pathogens including C. difficile, K. pneumonia e and Salmonella enterica has proved successful in understanding the pathogenic role of these bacteria
pneumonia 45993 bracketed digits indicate number of genomes): C. difficile (1322), E. coli (10541), C. botulinum (225), K. pneumonia e (3927) and S. enterica (8780). Yet, including a batch addition of 30 genomes towards the end of 2016,

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