Clinical management of herpes simplex virus infections: past, present, and future

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
vidarabine 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
cidofovir 9 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
genital herpes 2 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis C 1 infectiousdiseases
valacyclovir 5 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
penciclovir 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
AIDS 1 infectiousdiseases
famciclovir 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
foscarnet 3 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
herpes simplex 20 infectiousdiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
cidofovir 19133 present, only two such therapeutics are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration: foscarnet and cidofovir . Foscarnet is a pyrophosphate analog that inhibits viral DNA polymerase by mimicking the structure of
cidofovir 19449 isolates have been obtained from individuals with AIDS. The alternative drug currently available is cidofovir . Cidofovir is an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate. The drug does not require virus-encoded thymidine kinase
cidofovir 19617 does not require virus-encoded thymidine kinase to be activated. Mutations conferring resistance to cidofovir have been mapped to certain domains of the DNA polymerase. Both foscarnet and cidofovir are associated
cidofovir 19705 resistance to cidofovir have been mapped to certain domains of the DNA polymerase. Both foscarnet and cidofovir are associated with toxicity and therefore must be used with caution [24]. Thus, it is obvious that
cidofovir 20768 resistance.Two medications are being evaluated for the management of systemic HSV infections: pritelivir and brin cidofovir . Pritelivir is a helicase primase inhibitor that plays an essential role in HSV DNA replication [30]– [32].
cidofovir 21430 evaluated for effectiveness against acyclovir-resistant HSV infections in the immunocompromised host.Brin cidofovir , a lipophilic derivative of cidofovir, has a mechanism of action similar to that of cidofovir but does
cidofovir 21468 acyclovir-resistant HSV infections in the immunocompromised host.Brincidofovir, a lipophilic derivative of cidofovir , has a mechanism of action similar to that of cidofovir but does not have the associated nephrotoxicity.
cidofovir 21524 host.Brincidofovir, a lipophilic derivative of cidofovir, has a mechanism of action similar to that of cidofovir but does not have the associated nephrotoxicity. The medication was originally developed for the management
cidofovir 22847 and of the CNS. Experimental data in animal models unequivocally show synergy when acyclovir and brin cidofovir are combined in the treatment of murine models of neonatal HSV infections; synergy has also been noted
famciclovir 15890 intravenously, or taken orally. Since then, prototypic drugs for the treatment of these infections include famciclovir (the prodrug of penciclovir) and valacyclovir (the prodrug of acyclovir). All of these drugs must be
famciclovir 22289 the pharmaceutical industry. Because of the high safety of drugs such as acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir , the market need for additional drugs is significantly reduced from the perspective of most pharmaceutical
foscarnet 19119 required. At present, only two such therapeutics are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration: foscarnet and cidofovir. Foscarnet is a pyrophosphate analog that inhibits viral DNA polymerase by mimicking the
foscarnet 19329 the structure of pyrophosphate. As such, it does not require phosphorylation for activation. Rarely, foscarnet -resistant isolates have been obtained from individuals with AIDS. The alternative drug currently available
foscarnet 19691 conferring resistance to cidofovir have been mapped to certain domains of the DNA polymerase. Both foscarnet and cidofovir are associated with toxicity and therefore must be used with caution [24]. Thus, it is
penciclovir 15918 Since then, prototypic drugs for the treatment of these infections include famciclovir (the prodrug of penciclovir ) and valacyclovir (the prodrug of acyclovir). All of these drugs must be phosphorylated in order to
valacyclovir 13456 left minimally impaired.Recently, a placebo-controlled study tested the hypothesis that long-term oral valacyclovir administration would improve neurologic outcome for those with proven disease, as oral acyclovir did
valacyclovir 13687 infection [20]. However, when administered at a dose of 2 grams three times a day for three months, valacyclovir did not improve outcome as compared with placebo. Nevertheless, the study provided, for the first time,
valacyclovir 14715 patients were functional with no or mild impairment.As noted above, the long-term administration of valacyclovir to patients with herpes simplex encephalitis was instituted with the presumption that chronic replication
valacyclovir 15935 prototypic drugs for the treatment of these infections include famciclovir (the prodrug of penciclovir) and valacyclovir (the prodrug of acyclovir). All of these drugs must be phosphorylated in order to be active. Upon entry
valacyclovir 22271 on the part of the pharmaceutical industry. Because of the high safety of drugs such as acyclovir, valacyclovir , and famciclovir, the market need for additional drugs is significantly reduced from the perspective
vidarabine 10908 antiviral therapy was proven to decrease mortality from herpes simplex encephalitis with the institution of vidarabine therapy in the late 1970s, it was not until much later (1986) that acyclovir was proven to be beneficial
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
AIDS 19399 phosphorylation for activation. Rarely, foscarnet-resistant isolates have been obtained from individuals with AIDS . The alternative drug currently available is cidofovir. Cidofovir is an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate.
genital herpes 4166 belt, namely the mouth and eye, whereas HSV-2 was attributed to infections below the belt, specifically genital herpes . However, in contemporary times, there is significant overlap between the sites of HSV infection with
genital herpes 4316 there is significant overlap between the sites of HSV infection with an ever-increasing proportion of genital herpes caused by HSV-1. In the US, over 50% of adults are seropositive for HSV-1 and about 15% of those who
hepatitis C 22507 companies.Many lessons have been learned from the management of HIV infection and the treatment of hepatitis C virus infections. The most salient of these lessons is the synergistic activity of combination therapies.
herpes simplex 43 Title: F1000ResearchClinical management of herpes simplex virus infections: past, present, and future[version 1; referees: 2 approved]Richard Whitley (Conceptualization)
herpes simplex 483 Editing)Publication date (epub): 10/2018Publication date (collection): /2018AbstractInfection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 is ubiquitous in the human population. Most commonly, virus replication is
herpes simplex 3496 the medical literature. In particular, life-threatening disease, such as neonatal HSV infections and herpes simplex encephalitis, appeared in the literature for the first time in the 1930s. Several fundamental early
herpes simplex 5582 years and outline promising future approaches to prevent and decrease HSV-mediated disease.Neonatal herpes simplex virus infectionNeonatal HSV infections are among the most devastating of all those caused by this virus [7].
herpes simplex 10739 accretion of virus and CSF assessment. Hopefully, this approach will decrease the incidence of neonatal herpes simplex infection.Herpes simplex encephalitisAlthough antiviral therapy was proven to decrease mortality from
herpes simplex 10856 infection.Herpes simplex encephalitisAlthough antiviral therapy was proven to decrease mortality from herpes simplex encephalitis with the institution of vidarabine therapy in the late 1970s, it was not until much later
herpes simplex 11058 until much later (1986) that acyclovir was proven to be beneficial in the treatment of biopsy-proven herpes simplex encephalitis [13]. Significant knowledge has increased our understanding of the diagnosis, treatment,
herpes simplex 11193 Significant knowledge has increased our understanding of the diagnosis, treatment, and management of herpes simplex encephalitis. First, the overall incidence of herpes simplex encephalitis has not changed significantly
herpes simplex 11254 diagnosis, treatment, and management of herpes simplex encephalitis. First, the overall incidence of herpes simplex encephalitis has not changed significantly since the early 1980s (1 in 100,000 to 150,000 individuals) [14].
herpes simplex 11633 application of PCR for the detection of HSV DNA in the CSF provided the gold standard for the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis, replacing brain biopsy as the legitimate diagnostic [15], [16]. Importantly, the sensitivity
herpes simplex 12204 to obtain a reliable and reproducible result. Second, because of the high morbidity and mortality of herpes simplex encephalitis (mortality of about 20% six months after disease onset), the early institution of intravenous
herpes simplex 12487 not uniformly, empiric treatment is provided to patients who present with findings compatible with herpes simplex encephalitis [17]. Specifically, those patients with fever, altered mentation, and CSF abnormalities
herpes simplex 13082 been developed through reviews and summaries of patients that total over 200 individuals with proven herpes simplex encephalitis [18], [19]. Overall, acute 30-day mortality has been reported to be as low as 5 to 10%
herpes simplex 14266 Dementia Rating Scale and a Mini-Mental State Examination were applied to 79 patients with confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis. At baseline (day 30), 36% were assessed as having moderate/severe impairment with both
herpes simplex 14745 no or mild impairment.As noted above, the long-term administration of valacyclovir to patients with herpes simplex encephalitis was instituted with the presumption that chronic replication could occur in the CNS as
herpes simplex 14940 occur in the CNS as presumably is the case in babies with neonatal herpes caused by HSV-2. However, herpes simplex encephalitis in older children and adults is routinely caused by HSV-1. Thus, the implication is that
herpes simplex 15333 the blood–brain barrier as well as combination therapies should be considered for future studies of herpes simplex encephalitis. Perhaps only then will mortality and morbidity be further reduced.ResistanceWith the advent
herpes simplex 17850 mandatory [24], [25].As noted above, these nucleoside analogs require intracellular phosphorylation by herpes simplex thymidine kinase. Thus, mutations in the UL23 gene that encodes viral thymidine kinase can arise and
herpes simplex 29379 recurrent disease [47], [48].AbbreviationsCNS, central nervous system; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; HSV-1, herpes simplex virus type 1; HSV-2, herpes simplex virus type 2; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; SEM, disease localized
herpes simplex 29415 disease [47], [48].AbbreviationsCNS, central nervous system; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; HSV-1, herpes simplex virus type 1; HSV-2, herpes simplex virus type 2; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; SEM, disease localized to the skin, eye, and mout

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