Fungal persister cells: The basis for recalcitrant infections?

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
doxycycline 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
fluconazole 4 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
miconazole 8 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
tetracycline 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
AIDS 1 infectiousdiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
doxycycline 20288 tetracycline-inducible promoter (Tet-off) for overexpression, they could demonstrate that upon the addition of doxycycline (20 μg/mL), the persister fraction was reduced again to the original level. Although this demonstrates
fluconazole 5150 killing pattern [[16],[17]]. An important aspect to take into consideration is that tolerance against fluconazole , often referred to as “trailing growth,” is also observed for fungi [[10],[18]]. However, this is
fluconazole 5352 However, this is distinct from persister cells. First, persister cells are only observed in biofilms and fluconazole has a limited efficacy against biofilms. Second, fluconazole is a fungistatic agent. Therefore, all
fluconazole 5413 cells are only observed in biofilms and fluconazole has a limited efficacy against biofilms. Second, fluconazole is a fungistatic agent. Therefore, all cells will survive antifungal treatment, making the distinction
fluconazole 10297 the high probability of resistance and the presence of cross-resistance between other azoles (e.g., fluconazole ) and miconazole, it is recommended to use AmB instead of miconazole [[36]]. Second, several emerging
miconazole 3294 context, we refer to polyenes, such as amphothericin B (AmB), echinocandins, such as caspofungin, and miconazole , a fungicidal azole antifungal drug. Several factors resulting in treatment failure to these drugs were
miconazole 8694 are present in the absence of antifungals. The echinocandins, the polyenes, and one of the azoles ( miconazole ) share a fungicidal activity against C. albicans [[24]–[26]], but persister cells are typically investigated
miconazole 10314 probability of resistance and the presence of cross-resistance between other azoles (e.g., fluconazole) and miconazole , it is recommended to use AmB instead of miconazole [[36]]. Second, several emerging non-albicans species
miconazole 10366 cross-resistance between other azoles (e.g., fluconazole) and miconazole, it is recommended to use AmB instead of miconazole [[36]]. Second, several emerging non-albicans species are intrinsically tolerant against azole antifungals,
miconazole 12533 parapsilosisAAHB 44790.07%C. glabrataAAHB12Not detectedC. tropicalisAAHB73C. albicansCA-IF1002.4 mM miconazole 1.3%–2.3%?aRPMI-MOPS16 h[[35]]SC5314100 μg/mL AmB0.012%Flat-bottomed microtiter plate (polystyrene)24
miconazole 18319 increased expression of superoxide dismutases (SODs), which provide these cells with protection against miconazole -induced ROS production (Fig 3A) [[35]]. To show the importance of this overexpression of SODs in persister
miconazole 18560 performed in which the SOD inhibitor, N,N’-diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), was added together with miconazole , showing a strong reduction in the proportion of persisters. Further support was shown by experiments
miconazole 18803 double deletion strain, which resulted in a lower frequency of persister cells, in the presence of miconazole . However, both the double deletion mutant and the use of a SOD inhibitor failed to completely eradicate
tetracycline 20177 increase in the persister cell population, while the MBIC remained unaffected. Because they used a tetracycline -inducible promoter (Tet-off) for overexpression, they could demonstrate that upon the addition of doxycycline
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
AIDS 2256 could lead to a strong reduction of treatment failure in a clinical setting.IntroductionThe global AIDS crisis, the use of implants, and the higher survival rates of immunocompromised patients have resulted

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