Yellow fever outbreak in Brazil: the puzzle of rapid viral spread and challenges for immunisation

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infectious disease 2 infectiousdiseases
malaria 2 infectiousdiseases
yellow fever 12 infectiousdiseases

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infectious disease 14287 proliferation and dislocation of mosquito vectors of arboviral diseases, as well as other vectors of infectious disease s, from tropical to temperate zones of the globe.[18]-[20] More recently, other ecologists of infectious
infectious disease 14399 diseases, from tropical to temperate zones of the globe.[18]-[20] More recently, other ecologists of infectious disease s[21],[22] have noted that in temperate zones, where the winter temperature is very low for transmission
malaria 23617 forest. Therefore, the risk of zoonotic infections has been higher than ever, as illustrated by the malaria outbreaks of simian origin recorded in this biome of Southeastern Brazil in the last years.[36] Coincidently,
malaria 23791 Brazil in the last years.[36] Coincidently, YFV and Plasmodium simium, the causative agent of these malaria outbreaks, share the same vertebrate hosts, the NHPs, particularly howler monkeys. Yet, these philosophical
yellow fever 907 eco-social factors involved in the puzzle of the unexpected rapid viral spread in the ongoing Brazilian yellow fever (YF) outbreak, which has increased the reurbanisation risk of a disease without urban cases in Brazil
yellow fever 1312 Brazilian megalopolises (São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro) has led to an exponential increase in the number of yellow fever cases. In less than 18 months, 1,833 confirmed cases and 578 deaths were recorded most of them reported
yellow fever 3053 priority.Brazilian authorities and scientists have reported with perplexity the worst outbreak of sylvatic yellow fever (YF) in the last 80 years in the country with an exponential increase in the number of confirmed cases
yellow fever 9649 essentially sylvatic cases but also urban transmission with 1,079 confirmed deaths by histopathology.Fig. 1: yellow fever : human cases and case fatalities in Brazil 1930-2017. Source: Brazilian Ministry of Health, YF Epidemiological
yellow fever 9798 Brazil 1930-2017. Source: Brazilian Ministry of Health, YF Epidemiological reports 1930-2018.Fig. 2: yellow fever virus spread: rapid dislocation into and between Brazilian biomes. Black dashed line: viral spread from
yellow fever 17393 elements in the epidemiology of YFV both in South America and Africa.Fig. 3:probable route of spread of yellow fever (YF) epizootics of 1934-40 in Brazil as indicated by chronologic appearance of jungle YF. Sources: Benchimol[6])
yellow fever 28116 the Southeast since early 2017.[8],[43] In a previous outbreak in the South, the trajectory of the yellow fever virus circulation was estimated at 600 km in six months.[39]There is a consensus among experts, in spite
yellow fever 33779 Since the virus and the clinical evolution are identical, there is no distinction between “sylvatic yellow fever ” and “urban yellow fever” except for the ecological nature of the transmission, more properly
yellow fever 33808 clinical evolution are identical, there is no distinction between “sylvatic yellow fever” and “urban yellow fever ” except for the ecological nature of the transmission, more properly defined by the type of vector
yellow fever 34055 geographical location of infection acquisition could not suitably define a case as a sylvatic or urban yellow fever event. Indeed, there has been a recent increasing expansion of urbanisation in the Southeast with the
yellow fever 35167 transmission between the domestic mosquito Ae. aegypti and humans (Fig. 4).In conclusion, although yellow fever viremia is usually short in humans, the possibility of intense mobility of infected but asymptomatic
yellow fever 37041 Africa in the last outbreak in Angola, which spread to the Democratic Republic of Congo.[52],[53]Fig. 4: yellow fever virus (YFV) transmission dynamics in Atlantic Forest biome: overlap of ecosystems and ecotone. In the

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