Toxocariasis: a silent threat with a progressive public health impact.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
thiabendazole 4 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
toxoplasmosis 1 infectiousdiseases
trichinosis 1 infectiousdiseases
angiostrongyliasis 1 infectiousdiseases
cysticercosis 1 infectiousdiseases
thelaziasis 1 infectiousdiseases
meningitis 2 infectiousdiseases
pneumonia 2 infectiousdiseases
toxocariasis 53 infectiousdiseases
borreliosis 1 infectiousdiseases
ivermectin 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
mebendazole 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
ivermectin 31312 gastrointestinal tract compared to ABZ [[11], [52]]. Other anthelmintic drugs such as diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and ivermectin have been explored to treat VLM, but ivermectin has uncertain efficacy [[11], [52]]. In cases with cardiac
ivermectin 31360 anthelmintic drugs such as diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and ivermectin have been explored to treat VLM, but ivermectin has uncertain efficacy [[11], [52]]. In cases with cardiac involvement, regimens involving 800 mg/day
mebendazole 30735 resources.TreatmentThe mainstay of toxocariasis therapies includes anthelmintics (e.g. albendazole [ABZ], mebendazole [MBZ] and thiabendazole) and anti-inflammatory drugs [[14]]. These drugs are used to achieve a clinical
thiabendazole 30757 mainstay of toxocariasis therapies includes anthelmintics (e.g. albendazole [ABZ], mebendazole [MBZ] and thiabendazole ) and anti-inflammatory drugs [[14]]. These drugs are used to achieve a clinical resolution or to reduce
thiabendazole 34677 choice200 mg twice a day for one month and 400 or 800 mg twice a day for 2 weeksABZ is better tolerated than thiabendazole UncertainABZ Albendazole, MBZ Mebendazole, DEC Diethylcarbamazine, NR Not relevant, OT Ocular toxocariasis,
thiabendazole 34907 or common toxocariasis, VLM Visceral larva migransCombinations of corticosteroids with DEC, MBZ, or thiabendazole have been used for the treatment of NT [[7]]. Although NT may resolve from treatment using ABZ, MBZ,
thiabendazole 35022 have been used for the treatment of NT [[7]]. Although NT may resolve from treatment using ABZ, MBZ, thiabendazole and DEC, ABZ used for at least three weeks, which often needed to be repeated is the preferable choice
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
angiostrongyliasis 30315 proliferative and neoplastic pathologies (retinoblastoma), and other coexisting parasitic zoonoses (e.g. angiostrongyliasis , toxoplasmosis, cysticercosis, gnathostomiasis, thelaziasis, trichinosis), bacterial infections (e.g.
borreliosis 30441 toxoplasmosis, cysticercosis, gnathostomiasis, thelaziasis, trichinosis), bacterial infections (e.g. Lyme borreliosis ) or viral infections (e.g. cytomegaly). Future research is required to develop better diagnostic methods
cysticercosis 30350 (retinoblastoma), and other coexisting parasitic zoonoses (e.g. angiostrongyliasis, toxoplasmosis, cysticercosis , gnathostomiasis, thelaziasis, trichinosis), bacterial infections (e.g. Lyme borreliosis) or viral infections
meningitis 16624 faecal incontinence [[7], [107], [130], [131]]. Rarely recognizable neurological signs of eosinophilic meningitis , encephalitis, myelitis, cerebral vasculitis, epilepsy, neuropsychologic deficits or combined pathological
meningitis 19319 (Table 1). The associated clinical symptoms include myelitis, encephalitis, mental confusion and/or meningitis . NT can be influenced by many factors, such as host genetics, the number of ingested ova and prior exposure
pneumonia 16029 loss of appetite, nausea, emesis, lethargy, behavior and sleep disorders, abdominal pain, pharyngitis, pneumonia , cough, wheeze, itching, rash, limb pains, cervical lymphadenitis, pruritus, rash, and hepatomegaly
pneumonia 18844 non-specific symptoms, such as abdominal pain, fever, anorexia, nausea, headache, vomiting, pharyngitis, pneumonia , cough, wheeze and cervical lymphadenitis, which can be accompanied with eosinophilia and positive Toxocara
thelaziasis 30382 coexisting parasitic zoonoses (e.g. angiostrongyliasis, toxoplasmosis, cysticercosis, gnathostomiasis, thelaziasis , trichinosis), bacterial infections (e.g. Lyme borreliosis) or viral infections (e.g. cytomegaly). Future
toxocariasis 806 epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and pharmacotherapies that have been used in the treatment of toxocariasis are reviewed.Main textOver the past two decades, we have come far in our understanding of the biology
toxocariasis 941 textOver the past two decades, we have come far in our understanding of the biology and epidemiology of toxocariasis . However, lack of laboratory infrastructure in some countries, lack of uniform case definitions and
toxocariasis 1668 minimize any unnecessary patient morbidity.ConclusionsAlthough progress has been made in the management of toxocariasis patients, there remains much work to be done. Implementation of new technologies and better understanding
toxocariasis 1810 work to be done. Implementation of new technologies and better understanding of the pathogenesis of toxocariasis can identify new diagnostic biomarkers, which may help in increasing diagnostic accuracy. Also, further
toxocariasis 4100 Toxocara parasite has a notorious tendency to cause extra-intestinal pathologies [[7], [8]]. Indeed, toxocariasis includes four clinical forms, which can lead to serious health consequences [[7], [9], [10]]. Due to
toxocariasis 4347 disease, its medical and public health impact might be underestimated [[11], [12]]. Thus, although toxocariasis can be diagnosed tentatively based on patient’s symptoms, laboratory diagnosis is required to improve
toxocariasis 4655 [[15]], and since then it has been reported in almost 100 countries [[7], [8]]. Over the last few years, toxocariasis has gained an increasing international attention and was listed among the five most neglected parasitic
toxocariasis 5240 markers have been discovered [[9], [18]–[20]]. These achievements reflect the increased awareness of toxocariasis and recognition of its continued public health impact. In this article, we provide an updated review
toxocariasis 5365 recognition of its continued public health impact. In this article, we provide an updated review of data on toxocariasis , with a focus on the epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the disease.ReviewThe causative
toxocariasis 8060 Austria, India, Japan, Korea, China, USA, and Brazil (Additional file 2: Table S1). A total of 823 ocular toxocariasis (OT) cases have been reported, including 282 cases in Europe, 317 cases in Asia, five cases in Australia,
toxocariasis 8384 highest number of OT cases has been reported in Japan and Korea, France, Brazil and the USA. Only 99 neuro toxocariasis (NT) cases have been recorded worldwide, of which 46 cases occurred in Europe, 32 cases in Asia, 20
toxocariasis 9034 75% of cases in South American 101 cases). Eating raw cows’ liver is the main route for acquiring toxocariasis in Japan and Korea, whereas stray dogs and cats spreading eggs in environment are the main source of
toxocariasis 9451 eggs, for example in playgrounds, sandpits and gardens.Several seroepidemiological features of human toxocariasis are shown in Additional file 2: Table S2. Some risk factors of toxocariasis, such as gender, age, household’s
toxocariasis 9528 seroepidemiological features of human toxocariasis are shown in Additional file 2: Table S2. Some risk factors of toxocariasis , such as gender, age, household’s design and construction material, and the presence of domestic animals,
toxocariasis 9739 animals, have been identified. However, current knowledge of important epidemiological features of toxocariasis , such as the global burden of the disease, disability-adjusted life years, and populations at risk,
toxocariasis 9970 determined. Since many infections are asymptomatic and thus can be misdiagnosed, the global burden of toxocariasis is likely to have been underestimated [[3]]. The global prevalence of human toxocariasis can be influenced
toxocariasis 10059 burden of toxocariasis is likely to have been underestimated [[3]]. The global prevalence of human toxocariasis can be influenced by a number of potentially confounding variables that can contribute to differences
toxocariasis 10190 by a number of potentially confounding variables that can contribute to differences in the reported toxocariasis prevalence [[3], [33]]. To improve consistency of the results obtained from prevalence surveys, future
toxocariasis 10451 diagnostic criteria and should be performed by trained clinicians who can apply a standardized set of toxocariasis case definitions.Sources of contamination, route of transmission and reservoirsDogs and cats are the
toxocariasis 10597 contamination, route of transmission and reservoirsDogs and cats are the most important animal hosts for toxocariasis , especially in developing countries where most cats and dogs have access to public parks and playgrounds,
toxocariasis 11748 [[3]–[44]]. In some temperate countries, such as Germany and England, although a few cases of human toxocariasis have been reported [[39], [44]], environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs has been found to be
toxocariasis 13925 muscle and eyes, a broad range of clinical symptoms can be developed (Table 1) [[7]]. In general, human toxocariasis is categorized into four clinical forms: VLM, OT, Covert or Common Toxocariasis (CT), and NT, depending
toxocariasis 14321 individuals [[7], [9], [15], [33], [52]].Table 1Characteristics of the different clinical forms of toxocariasis Clinical syndromesPopulationInvolved sitesAssociated symptomsVLMChildren aged 2–7 yearsLiver, heart,
toxocariasis 17003 involvement, and meningo-radiculitis [[6], [7], [127], [132]].VLM Visceral larva migrans, OT Ocular toxocariasis , CT Covert or common toxocariasis, NT Neurotoxocariasis, DUSN Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis,
toxocariasis 17037 meningo-radiculitis [[6], [7], [127], [132]].VLM Visceral larva migrans, OT Ocular toxocariasis, CT Covert or common toxocariasis , NT Neurotoxocariasis, DUSN Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis, DSN Distal symmetric sensory
toxocariasis 17059 [132]].VLM Visceral larva migrans, OT Ocular toxocariasis, CT Covert or common toxocariasis, NT Neuro toxocariasis , DUSN Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis, DSN Distal symmetric sensory neuropathyVLMVLM is the
toxocariasis 18708 induction of distortion, heterotopia and/or detachment of the macula [[64], [65]].CTIn this form of toxocariasis , patients exhibit non-specific symptoms, such as abdominal pain, fever, anorexia, nausea, headache,
toxocariasis 19724 therefore necessary to establish an early diagnosis and start appropriate treatment. Also, diagnosis of toxocariasis should rely on clinical, radiographic and laboratory evidence of the disease [[13], [14]]. In general,
toxocariasis 19853 clinical, radiographic and laboratory evidence of the disease [[13], [14]]. In general, diagnosis of toxocariasis is based on history (e.g. individuals consumed raw or undercooked meat [[7], [13]]), clinical examination,
toxocariasis 20288 are also available (Table 2) and can be used to confirm the diagnosis.Table 2Diagnostic methods for toxocariasis ApproachesMethodsCharacteristicsTargetsAdvantagesDisadvantagesDirect microscopy [[9], [13], [14], [133]]Biopsy
toxocariasis 21949 [[14]].rTES-30, rTES-26 or rTES-120 [[67], [136]]Recommended as the best option for diagnosis of human toxocariasis [[67], [137]–[139]].Nucleic acid amplification [[9]]RFLPRequires a large quantity of genomic DNA,
toxocariasis 22910 powerful and convenient approach for monitoring the contamination of soil with Toxocara eggsOT Ocular toxocariasis , CT Covert or common toxocariasis, ECP Eosinophil cationic protein, VLM Visceral larva migrans, TES-Ag
toxocariasis 22944 monitoring the contamination of soil with Toxocara eggsOT Ocular toxocariasis, CT Covert or common toxocariasis , ECP Eosinophil cationic protein, VLM Visceral larva migrans, TES-Ag Toxocara excretory secretory antigensDirect
toxocariasis 23264 (CSF) or ocular fluids using direct microscopy remains the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of toxocariasis [[13]]. However, this method is invasive, insensitive and time-consuming [[14]]. Also, it can be difficult
toxocariasis 23651 tissues [[9], [67]].SerodiagnosticsSerological tests are used to support the clinical diagnosis of toxocariasis . Immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) has shown an excellent specificity, but its low sensitivity has limited
toxocariasis 23975 secretory antigens of the third stage larvae (L3) of T. canis, is commonly used for diagnosis of human toxocariasis [[1]]. A limitation of T. canis antigen testing is the significant cross-reactivity with other helminths,
toxocariasis 24569 be ignored. Although a positive test does not imply causation, a negative test can help to rule out toxocariasis . Serological tests for detecting T. canis antibodies may have less value in the evaluation of disease
toxocariasis 26694 Molecular methods with improved performance characteristics have the potential to advance the diagnosis of toxocariasis .Diagnostic imagingA variety of imaging modalities have been used for the detection of lesions caused
toxocariasis 29690 [[90]].Differential diagnosisDespite growing efforts to develop a range of diagnostic methods for detection of human toxocariasis , accurate diagnosis remains a challenge. To improve the management of toxocariasis, we must distinguish
toxocariasis 29773 detection of human toxocariasis, accurate diagnosis remains a challenge. To improve the management of toxocariasis , we must distinguish this disease from similar conditions. Hence, NT should be differentiated from neural
toxocariasis 30664 detecting the causative parasite, so as to best direct appropriate resources.TreatmentThe mainstay of toxocariasis therapies includes anthelmintics (e.g. albendazole [ABZ], mebendazole [MBZ] and thiabendazole) and anti-inflammatory
toxocariasis 31653 1000 mg/day for four weeks have been used [[58]]. Corticosteroids have been used in cases of pulmonary toxocariasis and toxocariasis-associated cardiac diseases [[95], [96]].Despite the lack of an optimal treatment for
toxocariasis 31670 weeks have been used [[58]]. Corticosteroids have been used in cases of pulmonary toxocariasis and toxocariasis -associated cardiac diseases [[95], [96]].Despite the lack of an optimal treatment for OT, some patients
toxocariasis 32441 the administration of steroids following the procedure [[104]].Table 3Treatment regimens for human toxocariasis Clinical formsAlternativesRegimensRemarksTherapeutic efficacyVLMAlbendazole (ABZ) [[92], [93], [140]]First
toxocariasis 34784 thiabendazoleUncertainABZ Albendazole, MBZ Mebendazole, DEC Diethylcarbamazine, NR Not relevant, OT Ocular toxocariasis , CT Covert or common toxocariasis, VLM Visceral larva migransCombinations of corticosteroids with DEC,
toxocariasis 34818 MBZ Mebendazole, DEC Diethylcarbamazine, NR Not relevant, OT Ocular toxocariasis, CT Covert or common toxocariasis , VLM Visceral larva migransCombinations of corticosteroids with DEC, MBZ, orthiabendazole have been
toxocariasis 36986 disposal of faeces of infected dogs and cats in order to break the dog-soil-human transmission cycle of toxocariasis [[111]].Prevention of human infections can also be achieved by washing hands after touching or playing
toxocariasis 37608 interventions have been tested in animal models and may provide alternatives for the prevention of toxocariasis . For example, probiotics (Enterococcus faecalis CECT 7121 and Saccharomyces boulardii) and DNA-based
toxocariasis 38270 canis infection in mice [[116]].ConclusionsDespite extraordinary progress during the past two decades, toxocariasis continues to pose a significant challenge to the public health. This challenge includes a need for continued
toxocariasis 38436 public health. This challenge includes a need for continued surveillance to better define the burden of toxocariasis , which requires timely, efficient diagnosis; a need to develop and deploy new drugs and vaccines to
toxocariasis 39548 probability of benefit. Successful realization of these research priorities can advance the understanding of toxocariasis and promote the development of new interventions to prevent Toxocara infection and minimize its impact
toxocariasis 39869 languages of the United Nations. (PDF 254 kb)Additional file 2:Table S1. Number of clinical cases of human toxocariasis by clinical form and country. Table S2. Epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for human toxocariasis
toxocariasis 39981 by clinical form and country. Table S2. Epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for human toxocariasis and references. Table S3. Prevalence of Toxocara spp. in definitive hosts by country and animal host
toxoplasmosis 30335 neoplastic pathologies (retinoblastoma), and other coexisting parasitic zoonoses (e.g. angiostrongyliasis, toxoplasmosis , cysticercosis, gnathostomiasis, thelaziasis, trichinosis), bacterial infections (e.g. Lyme borreliosis)
trichinosis 30395 parasitic zoonoses (e.g. angiostrongyliasis, toxoplasmosis, cysticercosis, gnathostomiasis, thelaziasis, trichinosis ), bacterial infections (e.g. Lyme borreliosis) or viral infections (e.g. cytomegaly). Future research

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