Animal influence on water, sanitation and hygiene measures for zoonosis control at the household level: A systematic literature review

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
distomatosis 1 infectiousdiseases
echinococcosis 3 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis E 1 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 1 infectiousdiseases
schistosomiasis 1 infectiousdiseases
taeniasis 3 infectiousdiseases
toxoplasmosis 3 infectiousdiseases
Japanese encephalitis 2 infectiousdiseases
cryptosporidiosis 1 infectiousdiseases
cysticercosis 18 infectiousdiseases
rabies 1 infectiousdiseases
trypanosomiasis 1 infectiousdiseases
tuberculosis 2 infectiousdiseases

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Japanese encephalitis 46662 al. (2016) was designed as a cross-sectional study examining prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis virus and Trichinella spiralis in both humans and pigs, as well as Taenia spp. solely in humans in two
Japanese encephalitis 47801 control, despite solid practices of hand washing and water boiling amongst the population. Finally, Japanese encephalitis showed an increased risk of infection in cluster 2 over cluster 3, despite better WASH conditions. Data
cryptosporidiosis 7030 WHO in its “Research Priorities for Zoonoses and Marginalized Infections” include toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis and bacterial zoonoses, for which improved sanitation has proven effective in reducing transmission
cysticercosis 6695 animals and humans, and are therefore referred to as Neglected Zoonotic Diseases (NZDs). These include cysticercosis , rabies, echinococcosis, foodborne trematodiases, zoonotic African trypanosomiasis and schistosomiasis.
cysticercosis 7483 human treatment and livestock industry losses [[7]]. Taenia solium, the causal agent of taeniasis and cysticercosis , is responsible for an estimated cost of 2.8 million DALYs globally [[8]]. Mortality due to cysticercosis
cysticercosis 7589 cysticercosis, is responsible for an estimated cost of 2.8 million DALYs globally [[8]]. Mortality due to cysticercosis in humans increased by 58% between 1990 and 2010 [[9]], and the disease is estimated to affect over
cysticercosis 8255 transportation, as a source of protein and as a source of income when sold in local markets [[12]]. For example, cysticercosis has been reported to cause $12,6 million in annual losses in Cameroon [[13]], $150 million in India
cysticercosis 10988 feasible in practice [[24]]. For example, pig-corralling is recommended as a main method for control of cysticercosis , and hence programmes may be put in place to improve this practice amongst farmers [[25]]. However,
cysticercosis 18765 {[ntds], [nzd], [neglected zoonotic disease], [ntd], [neglected tropical disease], [taenia solium], [ cysticercosis ], [taeniasis], [pig tapeworm], [trypanosom*], [hat], [nagana], [echinococc*], [hydatidosis], [schistosom*],
cysticercosis 27314 pigsCysticercosisQuestionnaire/ observational surveyType of latrineFarming systemFree-roaming pigletsURPorcine cysticercosis was associated with absence or open latrine as opposed to an enclosed latrine.Bulaya et al. [[50]]2015Katete,
cysticercosis 30742 for taeniasis was 2.8%. Sanitation and pig-keeping practices were not deemed risk factors for neuro cysticercosis .Jayashi et al. [[72]]2012Morropon, PeruCross-sectional1153 pigsCysticercosisEITBLatrine presenceFree-roaming
cysticercosis 31954 management systemMRPrevalence was 32%. Risk factors include free roaming of pigs, previous porcine cysticercosis in the household and sourcing of water from rivers.Krecek et al. [[76]]2012Eastern Cape, South AfricaCross-sectional261
cysticercosis 37177 included poor hand hygiene.Prasad et al. [[92]]2011Uttar Pradesh, IndiaCross-sectional595 humansNeuro cysticercosis MRIEITBWater sourceWater drainagePig housingURPrevalence was 15.1%. Risk factors included lack of safe
cysticercosis 38736 human blood samplesCysticercosisELISAPCRWater sourceNANAThe study identified a relationship between cysticercosis endemicity and extensive pig farming and lack of water treatment.Schantz et al. [[98]]2003Qinghai, ChinaCross-sectional3703
cysticercosis 43975 on Principal Components; GLM: Generalised Linear Model.More than half of the studies (29) focused on cysticercosis , while 12 focused on toxoplasmosis (Table 2). Humans appear as the most studied species, with 36 studies
cysticercosis 46240 an enhanced negative effect of animal presence on the impact of poor WASH conditions. In the case of cysticercosis , studies show contradictory results regarding the impact of WASH measures and animal presence on disease
cysticercosis 49412 was a comparative study pre- and post- community-led total sanitation (CLTS) intervention for porcine cysticercosis control, identifying prevalence performing an Ag-ELISA test. There was no randomization in village selection
cysticercosis 54497 avoiding contamination of water that could facilitate Culex spp. reproduction. Regarding Taenia solium and cysticercosis , the cluster with higher rates of free-roaming pigs and open defecation showed the highest risk of infection,
cysticercosis 58458 could be the explanation as to why the increase in latrine presence had no effect in decreasing porcine cysticercosis . Free roaming of pigs has been identified as a risk factor for porcine cysticercosis by some of the
cysticercosis 58543 decreasing porcine cysticercosis. Free roaming of pigs has been identified as a risk factor for porcine cysticercosis by some of the studies screened before review inclusion [[69], [75]] but was found to be non-significantly
cysticercosis 60401 into stabling farming systems, also alter the local economy of the community [[125]]. In the case of cysticercosis , the penning of pigs is not always possible in certain communities given the resulting increased costs
distomatosis 18947 [echinococc*], [hydatidosis], [schistosom*], [snail fever], [foodborne trematod*], [fbt], [chlonorch*], [ distomatosis ], [liver rot], [opisthorch*], [paragonim*], [lung fluke], [toxoplasm*], [cryptosporid*], [crypto*],
echinococcosis 6718 are therefore referred to as Neglected Zoonotic Diseases (NZDs). These include cysticercosis, rabies, echinococcosis , foodborne trematodiases, zoonotic African trypanosomiasis and schistosomiasis. Several of these are
echinococcosis 7224 in reducing transmission [[3]]. The global burden of these zoonotic diseases is considerable. Cystic echinococcosis causes, on average, the loss of 2 million annual disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), with associated
echinococcosis 42697 comparative580 dogs, 100 yaks, 15 goat, 19 sheepEchinococcosisELISANecropsyNADog treatmentX2Prevalence of echinococcosis decreased amongst the dog population after 5 years of treatment. The intervention had no positive impact
hepatitis E 46637 exclusion.The study by Holt et al. (2016) was designed as a cross-sectional study examining prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis virus and Trichinella spiralis in both humans and pigs, as well as
infectious disease 7883 Zoonoses are estimated to contribute to up to 10% of the total DALYs lost, and 26% of DALYs lost due to infectious disease s in low income countries [[11]]. Zoonoses affect human health directly, but by affecting animal health,
rabies 6710 humans, and are therefore referred to as Neglected Zoonotic Diseases (NZDs). These include cysticercosis, rabies , echinococcosis, foodborne trematodiases, zoonotic African trypanosomiasis and schistosomiasis. Several
schistosomiasis 6796 cysticercosis, rabies, echinococcosis, foodborne trematodiases, zoonotic African trypanosomiasis and schistosomiasis . Several of these are related to WASH elements in terms of prevention and/or treatment. Other diseases
taeniasis 7469 billion for human treatment and livestock industry losses [[7]]. Taenia solium, the causal agent of taeniasis and cysticercosis, is responsible for an estimated cost of 2.8 million DALYs globally [[8]]. Mortality
taeniasis 18782 [neglected zoonotic disease], [ntd], [neglected tropical disease], [taenia solium], [cysticercosis], [ taeniasis ], [pig tapeworm], [trypanosom*], [hat], [nagana], [echinococc*], [hydatidosis], [schistosom*], [snail
taeniasis 30647 controlsCysticercosisWBACT scanToilet typeWater sourceKeeping of pigsX2Fisher’s exact testPrevalence for taeniasis was 2.8%. Sanitation and pig-keeping practices were not deemed risk factors for neurocysticercosis.Jayashi
toxoplasmosis 7015 recognised by WHO in its “Research Priorities for Zoonoses and Marginalized Infections” include toxoplasmosis , cryptosporidiosis and bacterial zoonoses, for which improved sanitation has proven effective in reducing
toxoplasmosis 44010 Generalised Linear Model.More than half of the studies (29) focused on cysticercosis, while 12 focused on toxoplasmosis (Table 2). Humans appear as the most studied species, with 36 studies looking at human burden of disease,
toxoplasmosis 60744 be required to maintain and sustain these programmes consistently over time [[126]].In the case of toxoplasmosis , principal and consistent risk factors for infection identified throughout the literature, include unsafe
trypanosomiasis 6776 (NZDs). These include cysticercosis, rabies, echinococcosis, foodborne trematodiases, zoonotic African trypanosomiasis and schistosomiasis. Several of these are related to WASH elements in terms of prevention and/or treatment.
tuberculosis 26835 [[62]]2010Niamei, NigerRetrospective and longitudinal survey819 cattle, 7 sheep, 1 goat, 20 camelsBovine tuberculosis Bacteriology MacroscopyDisinfectant useHygienic conditionPresence of sick animalsPRURPrevalence was 0.19%
tuberculosis 45072 ruminantChickenTurkeyDogCatHorseSnailCysticercosis2911211-------Toxoplasmosis126-231-----Schistosomiasis44-3------4Taeniasis431--------Echinococcosis42-11--2---Leptospirosis32--------1-Giardiasis11---------Toxocariasis111--------Brucellosis11-11------Helminthiases11---------Bovine tuberculosis 1--11------Leishmaniasis1------1---HEV111--------JEV111--------Trichinosis111--------Mycobacteria NT11---------TOTAL36269610301410.1371/journal.pntd.0006619.t003Table

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