Linezolid: a review of its properties, function, and use in critical care.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
abscess 1 infectiousdiseases
meningitis 1 infectiousdiseases
necrotizing fasciitis 1 infectiousdiseases
ciprofloxacin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
clindamycin 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
diarrhea 1 infectiousdiseases
ofloxacin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
aztreonam 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
meropenem 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
pneumonia 22 infectiousdiseases
toxic shock syndrome 1 infectiousdiseases
gentamicin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
multidrug-resistant tuberculosis 1 infectiousdiseases
tuberculosis 1 infectiousdiseases
vancomycin 23 infectiousdiseasesdrugs

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
aztreonam 11092 or both the drugs or cause adverse effects.[51]–[53] Linezolid can be safely co-administered with aztreonam ; however, there is no enough evidence about the interaction between linezolid and rifampin.[40] Co-administration
ciprofloxacin 11261 between linezolid and rifampin.[40] Co-administration with Gram-negative antibiotics, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin , meropenem, and gentamicin had no adverse effect. Besides, using linezolid with antifungal drugs such
clindamycin 7105 applications.Examples of treatment effectsIn a case report, linezolid was used in addition to penicillin and clindamycin for suppression of toxic shock syndrome (TSS). In the study, the patient had right upper extremity necrotizing
clindamycin 7361 streptococcus TSS that were treated by adding linezolid as the patient showed no improvement on penicillin and clindamycin .[15]Studies have suggested that linezolid can be efficient in treating MDR-TB and XTR-TB.[16]–[27]In
gentamicin 11291 rifampin.[40] Co-administration with Gram-negative antibiotics, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, meropenem, and gentamicin had no adverse effect. Besides, using linezolid with antifungal drugs such as amphotericin B and azoles,
meropenem 11276 linezolid and rifampin.[40] Co-administration with Gram-negative antibiotics, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, meropenem , and gentamicin had no adverse effect. Besides, using linezolid with antifungal drugs such as amphotericin
ofloxacin 11265 between linezolid and rifampin.[40] Co-administration with Gram-negative antibiotics, ceftazidime, cipr ofloxacin , meropenem, and gentamicin had no adverse effect. Besides, using linezolid with antifungal drugs such
vancomycin 1166 reaction of translation elongation. Linezolid has been approved for the treatment of infections caused by vancomycin -resistant Enterococcus faecium, hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, complicated
vancomycin 1964 these proteins are located further away from the bound drug. The methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin -resistant enterococci are considered the most common Gram-positive bacteria found in intensive care
vancomycin 5460 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, or Streptococcus pneumoniae including multidrug-resistant strains; (b) vancomycin -resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) infections, including cases with concurrent bacteremia; (c) complicated
vancomycin 6641 the recent ZEPHyR trial[13] have reported higher treatment effectiveness for linezolid compared to vancomycin . However, it remains debatable whether linezolid is better than vancomycin for its approved indications
vancomycin 6716 for linezolid compared to vancomycin. However, it remains debatable whether linezolid is better than vancomycin for its approved indications such as SSSIs and nosocomial pneumonia or not. Several recent studies have
vancomycin 7962 linezolid because of its good cerebrospinal fluid penetration.[29]In a study on 80 patients with MRSA and vancomycin -intermediate S. aureus endocarditis, linezolid alone was administered to 66.7% of patients, while the
vancomycin 14085 These factors include tedizolid, dalbavancin, and oritavancin.[14] The linezolid vs daptomycin and vancomycin comparison is discussed below with some examples.Linezolid vs daptomycinA report of the treatment of
vancomycin 14197 comparison is discussed below with some examples.Linezolid vs daptomycinA report of the treatment of vancomycin -resistant enterococcal (VRE) bacteremia showed that 30-day mortality of daptomycin was higher than that
vancomycin 15280 revealed that the recommended daptomycin dose is suboptimal for treating VRE bacteremia.[64]Linezolid vs vancomycin The results of a systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that there is no difference between linezolid
vancomycin 15403 of a systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that there is no difference between linezolid and vancomycin in the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia. Besides, the results showed that there were no statistically
vancomycin 15574 results showed that there were no statistically significant differences between linezolid and comparator vancomycin or teicoplanin in analysis of microbiological eradication.[65] Similar results were obtained when the
vancomycin 15739 eradication.[65] Similar results were obtained when the analysis was stratified according to the comparator vancomycin or teicoplanin. In the main analysis, there were statistically significant higher rate of gastrointestinal
vancomycin 15931 rate of gastrointestinal events with linezolid compared to glycopeptides. In addition, compared to vancomycin , there was a significantly higher rate of thrombocytopenia with linezolid. In the incidence of renal
vancomycin 16214 treatments.[65]Some studies demonstrated that administration of linezolid is more cost-effective than vancomycin in the treatment of MRSA infection because of earlier discharge from the hospital.[66],[67] Generally,
vancomycin 16383 discharge from the hospital.[66],[67] Generally, linezolid may reduce mortality of patients compared to vancomycin .[68],[69]In a report, linezolid was compared with vancomycin for the treatment of patients with suspected
vancomycin 16444 reduce mortality of patients compared to vancomycin.[68],[69]In a report, linezolid was compared with vancomycin for the treatment of patients with suspected or confirmed skin and soft tissue infections caused by
vancomycin 16927 burns. In the intent-to-treat population, 92.2% and 88.5% of patients were treated with linezolid and vancomycin , respectively. Linezolid outcomes were superior to those of vancomycin, and drug-related adverse effects
vancomycin 16998 were treated with linezolid and vancomycin, respectively. Linezolid outcomes were superior to those of vancomycin , and drug-related adverse effects were similar in both linezolid and vancomycin group. The results of
vancomycin 17078 superior to those of vancomycin, and drug-related adverse effects were similar in both linezolid and vancomycin group. The results of this study showed that linezolid therapy is superior to vancomycin for the treatment
vancomycin 17167 linezolid and vancomycin group. The results of this study showed that linezolid therapy is superior to vancomycin for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections due to MRSA.[70]–[72]Mechanism of resistanceAnalysis
vancomycin 21349 VAP due to MRSAClinical success occurred in 85% of linezolid-treated patients compared with 69% of vancomycin -treated patients (p=0.009)Jiang et al[82]Meta-analysis of nosocomial pneumoniaEvaluation of 12 RCTs
vancomycin 22076 meta-analysis on suspected MRSA nosocomial pneumoniaEvaluation of nine RCTs found linezolid was not superior to vancomycin for clinical cureWhang et al[85]Systematic review and meta-analysis on VRE-BSIsThere were limited data
vancomycin 23821 1.09–7.94) than in the linezolid groupAbbreviations: MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; VRE, vancomycin -resistant enterococci; VAP, ventilator-associated pneumonia; RCT, randomized controlled trial; BSI,
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
abscess 16782 included patients with MRSA infections involving substantial areas of skin or deeper soft tissues, such as abscess es, cellulitis, infected ulcers, or burns. In the intent-to-treat population, 92.2% and 88.5% of patients
diarrhea 10691 thrombocytopenia;[41]–[43] (d) hyperlactatemia (lactic acidosis with plasma lactate level >2 mmol/L);[40],[44]–[46] (e) diarrhea , nausea, and headache;[47],[48] (f) hypoglycemia;[49] and (g) reticulocytopenia.[50]Drug interactionsWhen
meningitis 5984 caused by S. pneumoniae, including cases with simultaneous bacteremia, or MSSA;[9] and (f) pneumococcal meningitis caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae.[10]Recent advances in the use of linezolidLinezolid-containing
multidrug-resistant tuberculosis 6192 linezolidLinezolid-containing regimens have been suggested as promising potential alternatives to treat patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) or extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB). Therefore, linezolid could be considered as an effective
necrotizing fasciitis 7216 for suppression of toxic shock syndrome (TSS). In the study, the patient had right upper extremity necrotizing fasciitis and group A streptococcus TSS that were treated by adding linezolid as the patient showed no improvement
pneumonia 1227 the treatment of infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, complicated skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs), uncomplicated
pneumonia 1440 SSSIs caused by methicillin-susceptible S. aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes, and community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Analysis of high-resolution structures of linezolid has demonstrated
pneumonia 1474 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes, and community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumonia e. Analysis of high-resolution structures of linezolid has demonstrated that it binds a deep cleft of
pneumonia 5253 approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of the following: (a) hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant
pneumonia 5406 methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, or Streptococcus pneumonia e including multidrug-resistant strains; (b) vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) infections,
pneumonia 5870 Streptococcus agalactiae; (d) uncomplicated SSSIs caused by MSSA or S. pyogenes; (e) community-acquired pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae, including cases with simultaneous bacteremia, or MSSA;[9] and (f) pneumococcal
pneumonia 5893 (d) uncomplicated SSSIs caused by MSSA or S. pyogenes; (e) community-acquired pneumonia caused by S. pneumonia e, including cases with simultaneous bacteremia, or MSSA;[9] and (f) pneumococcal meningitis caused by
pneumonia 6029 simultaneous bacteremia, or MSSA;[9] and (f) pneumococcal meningitis caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumonia e.[10]Recent advances in the use of linezolidLinezolid-containing regimens have been suggested as promising
pneumonia 6433 choice for treating MDR-TB/XDR-TB.[11]In the recent published guidelines for the treatment of MRSA pneumonia , linezolid has been considered as a first-line antibiotic.[12] Moreover, several studies including the
pneumonia 6785 whether linezolid is better than vancomycin for its approved indications such as SSSIs and nosocomial pneumonia or not. Several recent studies have supported the clinical use of linezolid in complicated MRSA-SSSIs,
pneumonia 8206 therapy.[30]Linezolid has been reported to be very effective in the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia and catheter-related bacteremia, and hence, it is reasonable to use linezolid in the intensive care
pneumonia 13352 current role as a first-line treatment. Linezolid is suggested for PO or IV treatment of SSSIs and pneumonia caused by MRSA. Daptomycin (IV) should be used in complicated SSSIs and in patients with right-sided
pneumonia 13540 patients with right-sided endocarditis as well as MRSA bacteremia but should not be used to treat MRSA pneumonia . Both telavancin and tigecycline can be used as alternative (IV) treatments for SSSIs caused by MRSA;
pneumonia 15445 indicated that there is no difference between linezolid and vancomycin in the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia . Besides, the results showed that there were no statistically significant differences between linezolid
pneumonia 19860 armamentarium against MRSA and VRE.[4] Outcomes from the current clinical trials on linezolid for MRSA pneumonia and VRE infections are worthwhile for clinicians and give certainty that the drug is efficient. Although
pneumonia 21129 Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA, methicillin-resistant S. aureus.Table 1Summary of some trials of linezolid for pneumonia caused by MRSA and VRE infectionsStudyType of studyResultsPeyrani et al[81]Prospective observational
pneumonia 21429 compared with 69% of vancomycin-treated patients (p=0.009)Jiang et al[82]Meta-analysis of nosocomial pneumonia Evaluation of 12 RCTs showed that although linezolid was more effective in microbiological eradication
pneumonia 21586 linezolid was more effective in microbiological eradication than glycopeptide antibiotics for nosocomial pneumonia patients, it did not represent superiority in clinical cureAwad et al[83]RCT for nosocomial pneumonia
pneumonia 21688 pneumonia patients, it did not represent superiority in clinical cureAwad et al[83]RCT for nosocomial pneumonia including VAPCure rates in nosocomial pneumonia (excluding VAP) patients for ceftobiprole vs ceftazidime
pneumonia 21736 superiority in clinical cureAwad et al[83]RCT for nosocomial pneumonia including VAPCure rates in nosocomial pneumonia (excluding VAP) patients for ceftobiprole vs ceftazidime and linezolid were 59.6% vs 58.8% and 77.8%
pneumonia 22007 37.7% vs 55.9%Wang et al[84]Systematic review employing meta-analysis on suspected MRSA nosocomial pneumonia Evaluation of nine RCTs found linezolid was not superior to vancomycin for clinical cureWhang et al[85]Systematic
pneumonia 23882 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; VRE, vancomycin-resistant enterococci; VAP, ventilator-associated pneumonia ; RCT, randomized controlled trial; BSI, blood stream infection; OR, odds ratio
toxic shock syndrome 7136 effectsIn a case report, linezolid was used in addition to penicillin and clindamycin for suppression of toxic shock syndrome (TSS). In the study, the patient had right upper extremity necrotizing fasciitis and group A streptococcus
tuberculosis 6212 have been suggested as promising potential alternatives to treat patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) or extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB). Therefore, linezolid could be considered as an effective

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