A Review of the Ongoing Research on Zika Virus Treatment.

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Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
AIDS 1 infectiousdiseases
herpes simplex 2 infectiousdiseases
ivermectin 7 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
lopinavir 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
nelfinavir 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
tuberculosis 1 infectiousdiseases
Mefloquine 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
azithromycin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
yellow fever 2 infectiousdiseases
Zika fever 2 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis B 1 infectiousdiseases
niclosamide 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
ritonavir 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
chloroquine 5 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
hepatitis C 2 infectiousdiseases
malaria 2 infectiousdiseases
pyrimethamine 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

Note: If this graph is empty, then there are no terms that meet the proximity constraint.

Review

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Mefloquine 42999 activities[[40]]Ivermectin, Daptomycin, Mycophenolic acid (MPA), Sertraline, Pyrimethamine, Cyclosporine A, Azathioprine, Mefloquine HuH 7 cellsUnknow[[41]]Nicosamide, PHA-690509Gliobastoma SBN-19, hNPCS and human astrocytes cellsInhibit
azithromycin 12920 antibodies against the viral envelope protein, and analyzed by flow cytometry. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin inhibited viral replication at the different MOIs = 0.01 (EC50 = 2.1), MOI = 0.1 (EC50 = 2.9), and MOI
chloroquine 13430 by the FDA to treat malaria that can be administrated to pregnant women. The anti-ZIKV properties of chloroquine were tested in Vero cells, human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMEC), and hNSCs infected with
chloroquine 13950 results were corroborated by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analyses, which demonstrated that chloroquine at 50 µM reduced ZIKV infection up to 65% and 50% in Vero cells and hBMEC, respectively, with no effect
chloroquine 14096 up to 65% and 50% in Vero cells and hBMEC, respectively, with no effect on cell viability. In hNSCs, chloroquine at 50 µM reduced ZIKV infection by 57% after 4 days of treatment, with 70% of cell viability. Chloroquine
chloroquine 14392 strain isolate and showed to decrease up to 16 folds the viral RNA levels in the supernatant. Moreover, chloroquine activity was tested in distinct stages of ZIKV infection, demonstrating to block the early stages of
chloroquine 14583 block the early stages of the replication cycle [[42]]. Chufeng Li and coworkers also demonstrated that chloroquine protects fetal mice from microcephaly caused by ZIKV [[64]].Bromocriptine is a dopamine D2 and D3 receptor
ivermectin 10439 however, 30 compounds demonstrated to be effective, decreasing virus infectivity. Eight compounds ( ivermectin , daptomycin, mycophenolic acid (MPA), sertraline, pyrimethamine, cyclosporine A, azathioprine, and mefloquine)
ivermectin 10992 presence of the drugs and ZIKV (MOI = 3) for 96 h. The results showed that MPA, cyclosporine A, and ivermectin significantly inhibited ZIKV MEX_I_7 infection. In human amnion epithelial cells (HAECs), ivermectin,
ivermectin 11093 ivermectin significantly inhibited ZIKV MEX_I_7 infection. In human amnion epithelial cells (HAECs), ivermectin , daptomycin, sertraline, and mefloquine inhibited viral infection at the maximum concentration of 16
ivermectin 11523 most potent action on ZIKV replication [[41]]. Among these compounds, the most potent inhibitors were ivermectin , mycophenolic acid (MPA), and daptomycin. Ivermectin is an anti-helminthic agent that in previous studies
ivermectin 36604 through the heterodimeric host transport factor importin (IMP) α and IMP β1 [[91]]. Both compounds ivermectin and N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR) inhibited the viral infection caused by DENV 1–4 by binding
ivermectin 37295 measured using 30 µM His6-ZikaRdRp and 10 µM biotinylated IMPα or 10 µM biotinylated IMPβ1, or ivermectin (positive control) and 4-HPR. The results revealed high affinity of Zika RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
ivermectin 40851 Hepatitis B, and syndrome of the human immunodeficiency. Some molecules, such as niclosamide, emricasam, ivermectin , MPA, and daptomycin, have shown to be effective on ZIKV infection in vitro by inhibiting viral entry
lopinavir 18296 such as the peptidomimetic boronic acid [[53]], dipeptides [[70]], Aprotinin [[54]], novobiocin, and lopinavir /ritonavir [[52]].3.2. In Silico Interaction Analysis and Natural DrugsByler and coworkers generated
lopinavir 44548 critical for ribonucleotide incorporation; interacts strongly with ZIKV RNA polymerase[[51]]Novobioctin, lopinavir -ritonavirVero/Huh-7/in silicoInhibition of NS2B-NS3 protease[[52]]Peptidomimetic boronic acidHuh-7/in
nelfinavir 25132 Through these assays, the authors found that manidipine, clinipidine, benidipine, primecrolimus, and nelfinavir mesylate were potential antiviral candidates. Manidipine, clinidipine, and benidipinew significantly
niclosamide 9589 effects of these compounds on the early and post-entry stages were investigated. The results showed that niclosamide and PHA-690509 inhibited ZIKV infection post-entry, probably blocking viral replication. Additionally,
niclosamide 40827 Hepatitis C, Herpes, Hepatitis B, and syndrome of the human immunodeficiency. Some molecules, such as niclosamide , emricasam, ivermectin, MPA, and daptomycin, have shown to be effective on ZIKV infection in vitro by
pyrimethamine 10500 decreasing virus infectivity. Eight compounds (ivermectin, daptomycin, mycophenolic acid (MPA), sertraline, pyrimethamine , cyclosporine A, azathioprine, and mefloquine) were selected for tests in human cell lines derived from
ritonavir 18306 peptidomimetic boronic acid [[53]], dipeptides [[70]], Aprotinin [[54]], novobiocin, and lopinavir/ ritonavir [[52]].3.2. In Silico Interaction Analysis and Natural DrugsByler and coworkers generated structural
ritonavir 44558 ribonucleotide incorporation; interacts strongly with ZIKV RNA polymerase[[51]]Novobioctin, lopinavir- ritonavir Vero/Huh-7/in silicoInhibition of NS2B-NS3 protease[[52]]Peptidomimetic boronic acidHuh-7/in silicoInhibition
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
AIDS 7477 in childhood to avoid the risk of Reye′s syndrome. Other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NS AIDS ) should be avoided due to the risk of hemorrhagic complications [[37],[38]]. Here, we aim to review
Zika fever 536 SP 15054-000, BrazilPublication date (epub): 5/2018Publication date (collection): 5/2018AbstractThe Zika fever is an arboviral disease resulting from the infection with Zika virus (ZIKV). The virus is transmitted
Zika fever 4145 as blood transfusion [[20]], sexual [[21]], perinatal, and transplacental transmissions [[11],[22]]. Zika fever is considered a mild disease with symptoms as headache, fever, malaise, and joint pain [[23]]. However,
hepatitis B 31109 replication of the herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) [[80]], cytomegalovirus (CMV) [[81]], hepatitis B virus (HBV) [[82]], human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [[83],[84],[85],[86]], and hepatitis C virus
hepatitis C 23178 immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [[73]], herpes simplex virus (HSV) [[74]], influenza virus (FLU) [[75]], and hepatitis C virus (HCV), consisting in the inhibition of viral entry into cells [[76]]. The anti-ZIKV potential
hepatitis C 31203 [[81]], hepatitis B virus (HBV) [[82]], human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [[83],[84],[85],[86]], and hepatitis C virus [[87]].Eyer and coworkers investigated the anti-ZIKV efficacy of a panel of 29 nucleoside analogues
herpes simplex 23109 abundance in green tea, with antiviral properties described for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [[73]], herpes simplex virus (HSV) [[74]], influenza virus (FLU) [[75]], and hepatitis C virus (HCV), consisting in the inhibition
herpes simplex 31022 infection [[40]]. As an example, nucleoside analogues showed to inhibit the viral replication of the herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) [[80]], cytomegalovirus (CMV) [[81]], hepatitis B virus (HBV) [[82]],
malaria 13349 administered to pregnant women [[63]].Chloroquine is another compound approved by the FDA to treat malaria that can be administrated to pregnant women. The anti-ZIKV properties of chloroquine were tested in
malaria 38358 (trifluoromethyl) is present in several compounds with already described therapeutic properties against malaria , cancer, and tuberculosis [[41]].Barbosa-Lima et al. synthesized and evaluated the antiviral activity
tuberculosis 38379 present in several compounds with already described therapeutic properties against malaria, cancer, and tuberculosis [[41]].Barbosa-Lima et al. synthesized and evaluated the antiviral activity of a number of molecules
yellow fever 1879 (strain MR 766) was first isolated [[1]] from the serum sample of a Rhesus monkey during a research on yellow fever virus (YFV) in the Zika forest, Uganda 1947. In 1948, the virus was isolated from a pool of Aedes Africanus
yellow fever 4659 genus Flavivirus, being phylogenetically related to the dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), and yellow fever virus (YFV) [[7]]. Recently, the structural similarity among the virions of ZIKV and other Flavivirus

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