Bird feathers as potential sources of pathogenic microorganisms: a new look at old diseases.

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Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
typhoid fever 1 infectiousdiseases
Newcastle disease 2 infectiousdiseases
chickenpox 2 infectiousdiseases
diphtheria 3 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 1 infectiousdiseases
melioidosis 1 infectiousdiseases
tetracycline 4 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
ampicillin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
cefotaxime 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
trimethoprim 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
tuberculosis 6 infectiousdiseases
AIDS 1 infectiousdiseases
cefepime 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
glanders 1 infectiousdiseases
candidiasis 1 infectiousdiseases
chloramphenicol 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
cryptococcosis 2 infectiousdiseases
pneumonia 1 infectiousdiseases
streptomycin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
vancomycin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

Note: If this graph is empty, then there are no terms that meet the proximity constraint.

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
ampicillin 8445 IIO157:H7EHECgadβESBLZhang et al. ([73]) and Winkler et al. ([72])EDL933, Lineage IO157:H7EHECdam, uidA, uidB,Carbenicillin, ampicillin streptomycinFoster et al. ([24]) and Carone et al. ([10])Infections with Gram-negative bacteria of birds
cefepime 19847 the treatment of humans and animals” (Cohen et al. [12]; Liebana et al. [39]); hence, the use of cefepime and/or cefotaxime appears to be justified at present (Table 2).Table 2Incidence, hospitalization and
cefotaxime 19863 of humans and animals” (Cohen et al. [12]; Liebana et al. [39]); hence, the use of cefepime and/or cefotaxime appears to be justified at present (Table 2).Table 2Incidence, hospitalization and mortality confirmed
chloramphenicol 7760 ([61])DSM 30083TO1:K1:H7Uninary tract infectionsU5/41THydrphobic antibiotic, amingli, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol Meier-Kolthoff et al. ([44])Sakai Lineage IO157:H7Diarrhoeastx2c(vh-b), stx2a/saa/ehxAΒ-lactams, aminoglycosidesHayashi
streptomycin 8455 ([73]) and Winkler et al. ([72])EDL933, Lineage IO157:H7EHECdam, uidA, uidB,Carbenicillin, ampicillin streptomycin Foster et al. ([24]) and Carone et al. ([10])Infections with Gram-negative bacteria of birds and humans
tetracycline 14261 mycobacteria in the lungs in which they can multiply and give rise to infection. Bird treatment (high doses of tetracycline , fluoroquinolones and sulphonamides with trimethoprim) should always be combined to maintain proper
tetracycline 18569 bacteria in industrial breeding, including Salmonella and E. coli, on fluoroquinolones, macrolides and tetracycline s (JIACRA and EFSA). An equally important threat to humans is the transmission of antibiotic resistance
tetracycline 19216 antibiotic classes in poultry farming should be avoided at this time, especially since fluoroquinolones and tetracycline s are widely used in human treatment and are the antibiotics of the most common infections in the respiratory
tetracycline 25486 see the textTreatment and prevention against anthrax is based on the use of antibiotics: β-lactams, tetracycline s and fluoroquinolones. To date, B. anthracis ASC32 and ASC70 and 183 other strains (ASC32 pXO derived
trimethoprim 14315 rise to infection. Bird treatment (high doses of tetracycline, fluoroquinolones and sulphonamides with trimethoprim ) should always be combined to maintain proper hygienic conditions, rearing, and proper feeding.Campylobacteriosis
vancomycin 25903 horticulture and feed with bone meal. If resistance is not established, the antibiotic of choice should be vancomycin . MLVA—8 analysis based on open reading frame (ORF) markers: vrr -A and B1−2C1−2. CG3 and plasmid
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
AIDS 39653 pathogens in cases of underlying and severe systemic disease (e.g., tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and AIDS ). The spores penetrate the lung cavity and germinate and then form a compact biomass of mycelium. Consequently,
Newcastle disease 29590 observed in humans (Ryan and Ray [62]; Koelle and Corey [36]; Johnston et al. [31]; Schiffer et al. [65]). Newcastle disease Newcastle disease is also called NCD. This disease is most often found in chickens and turkeys. Ducks
Newcastle disease 29607 (Ryan and Ray [62]; Koelle and Corey [36]; Johnston et al. [31]; Schiffer et al. [65]).Newcastle disease Newcastle disease is also called NCD. This disease is most often found in chickens and turkeys. Ducks and geese do not
candidiasis 41021 Candida species that can cause human infection, the most common of which is C. albicans. Symptoms of candidiasis vary depending on the area of the infected organism, and most often it develops in the mouth or throat
chickenpox 37393 McIntyre [42]). In humans, the infection spreads similar to nosocomial infections. The hallmark symptom of chickenpox is a rash. Before the pox appear, there is a general malaise sensation, fever, muscle aching, loss of
chickenpox 37695 or two without treatment. There is no cure but a vaccine can prevent it. In the United States, the chickenpox vaccine is routinely given to children.Main fungal diseasesAspergillosisAspergillosis is a group of
cryptococcosis 41577 innate immune system, the blastospores overcome through the disrupted gut barrier resulting in avian cryptococcosis . Cryptococcus neoformans are isolated from the faeces of pigeons or land contaminated by their faeces.
cryptococcosis 42122 that in birds (Hagen et al. [25]). Mammals, including humans, are vulnerable to infection; therefore, cryptococcosis is considered a zoonosis. The infection usually occurs through direct inhalation of spores into the
diphtheria 28109 nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). The mechanism of action of ToxA is similar to that of the diphtheria toxin. In the case of human sepsis during infection with the ToxA strain of Pseudomonas, the survival
diphtheria 37081 incubation period lasts from 4 to 20 days. Two forms of disease have been reported: dermatitis and diphtheria . The disease lasts approximately 20–30 days. Chickenpox-induced falls are very different. In the
diphtheria 37246 Chickenpox-induced falls are very different. In the case of dermatitis, the mortality is low (1–2%) but diphtheria can reach 50% (Macartney and McIntyre [42]). In humans, the infection spreads similar to nosocomial
glanders 26757 cepacia, and P. maltophila). Pseudomonas mallei and P. pseudomallei are the aetiological factors of glanders and melioidosis. People are infected most often by inhalation and by direct contact through damaged
infectious disease 1657 slaughter process. This review also enables us to effectively identify several of the early stages of infectious disease s from heterogeneous avian research material.BackgroundIncreasing morbidity from zoonoses is a significant
melioidosis 26771 maltophila). Pseudomonas mallei and P. pseudomallei are the aetiological factors of glanders and melioidosis . People are infected most often by inhalation and by direct contact through damaged skin causing soft
pneumonia 12539 isolated from hospitalized humans. The most important mycoplasmas causing human infections are Mycoplasma pneumonia e and other species from the Mycoplasmataceae family—Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and
tuberculosis 13080 preventive vaccines significantly reduces the occurrence of disease in the flock (Thomas et al. [68]).Pseudo tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. In birds, the disease occurs at any age,
tuberculosis 13141 in the flock (Thomas et al. [68]).Pseudotuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Yersinia pseudo tuberculosis . In birds, the disease occurs at any age, and young birds are very sensitive. Stress, worming, low hygiene,
tuberculosis 13887 motion, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, paralysis of the wings and lameness (Carnoy et al. [9]). Bird tuberculosis is mainly transmitted by air on small particles of mucus and may directly infect humans, as well. The
tuberculosis 14024 air on small particles of mucus and may directly infect humans, as well. The aetiological agent of tuberculosis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The direct infection occurs when the individual susceptible to infection
tuberculosis 14054 mucus and may directly infect humans, as well. The aetiological agent of tuberculosis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis . The direct infection occurs when the individual susceptible to infection collects mycobacteria in the
tuberculosis 39622 the air, fungal spores develop as pathogens in cases of underlying and severe systemic disease (e.g., tuberculosis , sarcoidosis, and AIDS). The spores penetrate the lung cavity and germinate and then form a compact
typhoid fever 17112 and 2-9-6-3-2 phage type 8, of avian origin are the aetiological factors of Salmonellosis other than typhoid fever (non-typhoidal Salmonellosis) in 6.4% of the cases of Salmonella infections (EFSA, ECDC 2015–2016).

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