Investigating the impact of poverty on colonization and infection with drug-resistant organisms in humans: a systematic review

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
nitrofurantoin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
pneumonia 14 infectiousdiseases
tuberculosis 1 infectiousdiseases
cefuroxime 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
gonorrhea 2 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 7 infectiousdiseases
malaria 1 infectiousdiseases
metronidazole 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
cefuroxime 22205 and training, along with poor living conditions, were two key domains impacting on the prevalence of cefuroxime - and nitrofurantoin-resistant E. coli [[35]].Not all evidence in HICs, however, has established an association
metronidazole 27940 the potential link between socioeconomic status as measured by the Jarman score, and resistance to metronidazole (P = 0.95) or a macrolide (P = 0.31) in a cohort of 1064 patients undergoing endoscopy between
nitrofurantoin 22221 along with poor living conditions, were two key domains impacting on the prevalence of cefuroxime- and nitrofurantoin -resistant E. coli [[35]].Not all evidence in HICs, however, has established an association between low
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
gonorrhea 16914 al. 2014 [[32]]ChinaCross-sectional384Patients from hospital in ShanghaiIndividualResistant Neisseria gonorrhea eInfectionPositiveNot applicableAMR Antimicrobial resistance, ICROMS Integrated quality criteria for
gonorrhea 20358 al. 2014 [[32]]ChinaCross-sectional384Patients from hospital in ShanghaiIndividualResistantNeisseria gonorrhea eInfectionPositiveNot applicableBoyanova et al. 2009 [[38]]BulgariaCohort266Untreated Helicobacter pylori
infectious disease 441 8/2018Publication date (collection): /2018AbstractBackgroundPoverty increases the risk of contracting infectious disease s and therefore exposure to antibiotics. Yet there is lacking evidence on the relationship between income
infectious disease 3072 significant improvements in other non-income dimensions.Poverty greatly increases the risk of contracting infectious disease s, with clinical outcomes further aggravated by lacking access to healthcare. Poor waste and sanitation,
infectious disease 3325 housing overcrowding [[4]] and inadequate nutrition [[5]] are all linked to risk of and recovery from infectious disease s. Furthermore, the interconnection between the different dimensions of poverty with infectious diseases
infectious disease 3428 infectious diseases. Furthermore, the interconnection between the different dimensions of poverty with infectious disease s across countries with varying economic status has also been well established [[6]–[9]].In this context,
infectious disease 3684 public health threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is critical as it is invariably connected to infectious disease s, but also a major threat to achievement of the sustainability goals. In the last decade, global consumption
infectious disease 10003 full-text screened 55 and finally included 19 in the review. The included studies were published mainly in infectious disease s, microbiology, and epidemiology journals, with a number of articles from general medical and other
infectious disease 10126 microbiology, and epidemiology journals, with a number of articles from general medical and other non- infectious disease specialist sources. Included articles were published from 1998 to 2015. Twelve studies were conducted
malaria 7626 also excluded studies exclusively exploring the relationship between poverty and HIV, tuberculosis and malaria , as reviews on these areas have already been published [[22]]. These studies generally explored the
pneumonia 1523 community and hospital patients. In high-income countries, low income was associated with Streptococcus pneumonia e and Acinetobacter baumannii resistance and a seven-fold higher infection rate. In low-income countries
pneumonia 1732 countries the findings on this relation were contradictory. Lack of education was linked to resistant S. pneumonia e and Escherichia coli. Two papers explored the relation between water and sanitation and antimicrobial
pneumonia 12599 2010BelgiumCohort1347Healthy children from 11 pre-schools in BrusselsHouseholdResistant Streptococcus pneumonia eColonisationPositive20Lestari et al. 2010 [[24]]IndonesiaCohort3995Patients from 2 hospitals and 3 primary
pneumonia 13372 analysis766Residents from MalmöCommunity/Neighbourhood (city-wide)Penicillin non-susceptibleStreptococcus pneumonia eNot specifiedNegativeNot ApplicableBagger et al. 2004 [[44]]UKCohort1739UK residents undergoing isolated
pneumonia 14101 aureusNilsson et al. [[25]] estimated the relation between penicillin-non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumonia e (defined by the authors as MIC ≥0.5 mg/ml for penicillin) and socio-economic factors including household
pneumonia 15299 has evolved (Table 3). In 1998, Chen et al. reported a negative association between income and S. pneumonia e resistance in the USA, using population-based surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease linked
pneumonia 19620 the USA, low parental educational attainment significantly predicted carriage of antibiotic-resistant pneumonia in young children, as reported in a community study with 710 children that evaluated variables such
pneumonia 21182 2005SwedenRetrospective data analysis766Residents from MalmöCommunityPenicillin non-susceptibleStreptococcus pneumonia eNot specifiedNegativeNot applicableGarcia-Rey et al. 2004 [[34]]SpainRetrospective data analysis2726Isolates
pneumonia 21451 Official provincial population demographic data from the National Statistics SystemCommunityResistantS. pneumonia eNot specifiedPositiveNot applicableHuang et al. 2004 [[33]]USACohort study742Young children from 16
pneumonia 21607 al. 2004 [[33]]USACohort study742Young children from 16 Massachusetts communitiesCommunityResistantS. pneumonia eBothPositive20AMR Antimicrobial resistance, ICROMS Integrated quality criteria for review of multiple
pneumonia 21917 from clinical samples submitted to the national reference laboratory, with antibiotic-resistant S. pneumonia e more frequently identified in adults with less than primary school education. A recent UK study also
pneumonia 22505 with less than upper secondary school education were no more likely to develop antibiotic-resistant pneumonia , although total prescribing of antibiotics was positively correlated with per capita income (r = 0.597,
pneumonia 26798 2005SwedenRetrospective data analysis766Residents from MalmöCommunityPenicillin non-susceptibleStaphylococcus pneumonia eNot specifiedNegativeNot applicableBagger et al. 2004 [[40]]UKCohort1739UK residents undergoing isolated
pneumonia 30221 mitigate its transmission and acquisition [[43]]. On the other hand, in the case of infections with S. pneumonia e, the differing results obtained by Jouirdain et a. (2010) [[44]] and Nilsson et al. [[25]] may reflect
tuberculosis 7609 excluded. We also excluded studies exclusively exploring the relationship between poverty and HIV, tuberculosis and malaria, as reviews on these areas have already been published [[22]]. These studies generally explored

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