A rare case of type 1 leprosy reactions following tetanus infection in a borderline tuberculoid leprosy patient and a literature review.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
borderline leprosy 1 infectiousdiseases
clofazimine 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
dapsone 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
lepromatous leprosy 3 infectiousdiseases
leprosy 30 infectiousdiseases
tetanus 27 infectiousdiseases
tuberculoid leprosy 2 infectiousdiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
clofazimine 3120 diagnosed with BB in 2011 and received multidrug therapy (MDT) (600 mg of rifampin and 300 mg of clofazimine monthly; 100 mg of dapsone and 50 mg of clofazimine daily) for 1 year, resulting in a clinical cure
clofazimine 3174 therapy (MDT) (600 mg of rifampin and 300 mg of clofazimine monthly; 100 mg of dapsone and 50 mg of clofazimine daily) for 1 year, resulting in a clinical cure in 2012.T1LR were initially considered, followed by
dapsone 3152 received multidrug therapy (MDT) (600 mg of rifampin and 300 mg of clofazimine monthly; 100 mg of dapsone and 50 mg of clofazimine daily) for 1 year, resulting in a clinical cure in 2012.T1LR were initially
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
borderline leprosy 2172 responses to Mycobacterium leprae antigens and mainly occur in borderline tuberculoid leprosy (BT), mid- borderline leprosy (BB) and borderline lepromatous leprosy (BL) patients [[1]]. T1LR can occur before, during or after
lepromatous leprosy 2211 and mainly occur in borderline tuberculoid leprosy (BT), mid-borderline leprosy (BB) and borderline lepromatous leprosy (BL) patients [[1]]. T1LR can occur before, during or after anti-leprosy treatment, is associated with
lepromatous leprosy 7612 [[8]].Saha et al. detected protective antibodies in a significantly higher proportion of non-immunized lepromatous leprosy patients compared to non-immunized matched healthy controls, suggesting that lepromatous leprosy patients
lepromatous leprosy 7709 non-immunized lepromatous leprosy patients compared to non-immunized matched healthy controls, suggesting that lepromatous leprosy patients are somewhat protected against tetanus [[9]]. Furthermore, Singh et al.’s findings indicate
leprosy 59 Title: Infectious Diseases of PovertyA rare case of type 1 leprosy reactions following tetanus infection in a borderline tuberculoid leprosy patient and a literature reviewChao
leprosy 133 PovertyA rare case of type 1 leprosy reactions following tetanus infection in a borderline tuberculoid leprosy patient and a literature reviewChao ShiZhi-Chun JingDe-Gang YangJian-Yu ZhuPublication date (epub):
leprosy 346 6/2018Publication date (pmc-release): 6/2018Publication date (collection): /2018AbstractBackgroundType 1 leprosy reaction, also known as “reversal reaction”, is related to cellular immune responses to Mycobacterium
leprosy 514 to cellular immune responses to Mycobacterium leprae antigens. The risk factors that trigger type 1 leprosy reactions are poorly understood. Leprosy with concurrent tetanus is rare, and there are no publicly
leprosy 645 understood. Leprosy with concurrent tetanus is rare, and there are no publicly available reports of a leprosy patient infected with tetanus that induced type 1 leprosy reactions.Case presentationA 56-year-old Chinese
leprosy 703 there are no publicly available reports of a leprosy patient infected with tetanus that induced type 1 leprosy reactions.Case presentationA 56-year-old Chinese Han female presented to our hospital with symptoms
leprosy 973 2 days and foreign object sensation in her throat for 3 days. The patient had a 6-year history of leprosy . Type 1 leprosy reactions were initially considered, followed by treatment with methylprednisolone.
leprosy 989 foreign object sensation in her throat for 3 days. The patient had a 6-year history of leprosy. Type 1 leprosy reactions were initially considered, followed by treatment with methylprednisolone. Two days later,
leprosy 1372 limb. After further careful examinations, we confirmed the diagnosis of tetanus with concurrent type 1 leprosy reactions. The patient was given anti-tetanus treatment for 12 days and anti-leprosy reaction treatment
leprosy 1458 concurrent type 1 leprosy reactions. The patient was given anti-tetanus treatment for 12 days and anti- leprosy reaction treatment for 4 months; the diseases were eventually controlled.ConclusionsThis report suggests
leprosy 1623 eventually controlled.ConclusionsThis report suggests that tetanus infection may be a trigger for type 1 leprosy reactions.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s40249-018-0441-4)
leprosy 1974 translations of the abstract into the five official working languages of the United Nations.BackgroundType 1 leprosy reaction (T1LR), also known as “reversal reaction”, is related to cellular immune responses to Mycobacterium
leprosy 2154 cellular immune responses to Mycobacterium leprae antigens and mainly occur in borderline tuberculoid leprosy (BT), mid-borderline leprosy (BB) and borderline lepromatous leprosy (BL) patients [[1]]. T1LR can occur
leprosy 2183 Mycobacterium leprae antigens and mainly occur in borderline tuberculoid leprosy (BT), mid-borderline leprosy (BB) and borderline lepromatous leprosy (BL) patients [[1]]. T1LR can occur before, during or after
leprosy 2223 occur in borderline tuberculoid leprosy (BT), mid-borderline leprosy (BB) and borderline lepromatous leprosy (BL) patients [[1]]. T1LR can occur before, during or after anti-leprosy treatment, is associated with
leprosy 2296 and borderline lepromatous leprosy (BL) patients [[1]]. T1LR can occur before, during or after anti- leprosy treatment, is associated with the mental and physical suffering of patients, and may lead to deformity
leprosy 2579 understood.Leprosy with concurrent tetanus is rare, and there are no publicly available articles of a leprosy patient infected with tetanus that induced T1LR. Here, we report a case of T1LR following tetanus infection
leprosy 3004 foreign object sensation in the throat when swallowing for 3 days. The patient had a 6-year history of leprosy . She was diagnosed with BB in 2011 and received multidrug therapy (MDT) (600 mg of rifampin and 300 mg
leprosy 4824 symptoms, she was diagnosed with tetanus and BT accompanying T1LR.Fig. 1Erythema resulting from type 1 leprosy reactions. The patient’s left arm shows large erythematous plaques with infiltrated edges, sparing
leprosy 7062 or aerobic secondary infections [[4]]. However, concurrent C. tetani infection is far less common in leprosy patients than it is in the general population. Tetanus in leprosy is rare and reported occasionally
leprosy 7128 tetani infection is far less common in leprosy patients than it is in the general population. Tetanus in leprosy is rare and reported occasionally as case reports only [[5], [6]]. According to a survey performed by
leprosy 7365 death from tetanus in the general population is 4.98% in Karnataka Province, India, but none of the 67 leprosy patients died of tetanus [[7]]. In 1988, Hodes and Teferedegne first reported five cases of leprosy
leprosy 7465 leprosy patients died of tetanus [[7]]. In 1988, Hodes and Teferedegne first reported five cases of leprosy with concurrent tetanus in Ethiopia [[8]].Saha et al. detected protective antibodies in a significantly
leprosy 7624 al. detected protective antibodies in a significantly higher proportion of non-immunized lepromatous leprosy patients compared to non-immunized matched healthy controls, suggesting that lepromatous leprosy patients
leprosy 7721 lepromatous leprosy patients compared to non-immunized matched healthy controls, suggesting that lepromatous leprosy patients are somewhat protected against tetanus [[9]]. Furthermore, Singh et al.’s findings indicate
leprosy 7934 immunological protection from tetanus and support the clinical impression of the rarity of tetanus in leprosy patients [[10]]. Dastur et al. speculated that acquired immunity for tetanus may be due to stimulation
leprosy 8355 resistance to tetanus than found in the general population [[11]]. Although the mechanisms that protect leprosy patients from tetanus have not been fully elucidated, the above three studies indicate and propose at
leprosy 9116 expression and, probably, the inflammatory reaction operating as a stimulatory signal triggering the leprosy reactions [[16], [17]]. The leprosy patient in this study, who had achieved clinical cure for many years,
leprosy 9152 inflammatory reaction operating as a stimulatory signal triggering the leprosy reactions [[16], [17]]. The leprosy patient in this study, who had achieved clinical cure for many years, showed symptoms of T1LR after
leprosy 10614 were initially misdiagnosed during her first visit to our outpatient facility as a manifestation of a leprosy reaction. After further careful examination, we confirmed the diagnosis of tetanus with concurrent T1LR.
tetanus 87 Title: Infectious Diseases of PovertyA rare case of type 1 leprosy reactions following tetanus infection in a borderline tuberculoid leprosy patient and a literature reviewChao ShiZhi-Chun JingDe-Gang
tetanus 579 The risk factors that trigger type 1 leprosy reactions are poorly understood. Leprosy with concurrent tetanus is rare, and there are no publicly available reports of a leprosy patient infected with tetanus that
tetanus 675 concurrent tetanus is rare, and there are no publicly available reports of a leprosy patient infected with tetanus that induced type 1 leprosy reactions.Case presentationA 56-year-old Chinese Han female presented to
tetanus 1341 over most of her left upper limb. After further careful examinations, we confirmed the diagnosis of tetanus with concurrent type 1 leprosy reactions. The patient was given anti-tetanus treatment for 12 days
tetanus 1418 confirmed the diagnosis of tetanus with concurrent type 1 leprosy reactions. The patient was given anti- tetanus treatment for 12 days and anti-leprosy reaction treatment for 4 months; the diseases were eventually
tetanus 1577 treatment for 4 months; the diseases were eventually controlled.ConclusionsThis report suggests that tetanus infection may be a trigger for type 1 leprosy reactions.Electronic supplementary materialThe online
tetanus 2512 disability. The events or conditions that trigger T1LR are poorly understood.Leprosy with concurrent tetanus is rare, and there are no publicly available articles of a leprosy patient infected with tetanus that
tetanus 2609 concurrent tetanus is rare, and there are no publicly available articles of a leprosy patient infected with tetanus that induced T1LR. Here, we report a case of T1LR following tetanus infection in a BT patient.Case presentationA
tetanus 2677 a leprosy patient infected with tetanus that induced T1LR. Here, we report a case of T1LR following tetanus infection in a BT patient.Case presentationA 56-year-old Chinese Han female presented to Shanghai Dermatology
tetanus 4754 at 6 different sites. According to her medical history and clinical symptoms, she was diagnosed with tetanus and BT accompanying T1LR.Fig. 1Erythema resulting from type 1 leprosy reactions. The patient’s left
tetanus 5003 with infiltrated edges, sparing the central regionThis patient was given the following: 100 000 IU tetanus antitoxin in a 500-ml 5% glucose-saline intravenous infusion daily; 200 000 U penicillin in an intramuscular
tetanus 5666 was debrided every day, followed by rinsing with 3% hydrogen peroxide and injection of 20 000 IU tetanus antitoxin around the wound. The paroxysmal spasticity and intensity of the spasms started to decrease
tetanus 6567 nerve bundles, leading to skeletal muscle spasms and convulsions [[2]]. In humans, the occurrence of tetanus after infection with C. tetani depends on the amount of exotoxin released, previous specific immunity,
tetanus 7273 case reports only [[5], [6]]. According to a survey performed by Smith, the incidence of death from tetanus in the general population is 4.98% in Karnataka Province, India, but none of the 67 leprosy patients
tetanus 7390 general population is 4.98% in Karnataka Province, India, but none of the 67 leprosy patients died of tetanus [[7]]. In 1988, Hodes and Teferedegne first reported five cases of leprosy with concurrent tetanus in
tetanus 7489 tetanus [[7]]. In 1988, Hodes and Teferedegne first reported five cases of leprosy with concurrent tetanus in Ethiopia [[8]].Saha et al. detected protective antibodies in a significantly higher proportion of
tetanus 7769 matched healthy controls, suggesting that lepromatous leprosy patients are somewhat protected against tetanus [[9]]. Furthermore, Singh et al.’s findings indicate immunological protection from tetanus and support
tetanus 7862 against tetanus [[9]]. Furthermore, Singh et al.’s findings indicate immunological protection from tetanus and support the clinical impression of the rarity of tetanus in leprosy patients [[10]]. Dastur et al.
tetanus 7923 indicate immunological protection from tetanus and support the clinical impression of the rarity of tetanus in leprosy patients [[10]]. Dastur et al. speculated that acquired immunity for tetanus may be due to
tetanus 8011 the rarity of tetanus in leprosy patients [[10]]. Dastur et al. speculated that acquired immunity for tetanus may be due to stimulation of the immune system by repeated infection by Clostridium. Leprosy patients
tetanus 8265 accompanying high likelihood of bacterial contamination, which provides them with much stronger resistance to tetanus than found in the general population [[11]]. Although the mechanisms that protect leprosy patients from
tetanus 8377 found in the general population [[11]]. Although the mechanisms that protect leprosy patients from tetanus have not been fully elucidated, the above three studies indicate and propose at least one possibility
tetanus 9274 this study, who had achieved clinical cure for many years, showed symptoms of T1LR after a few days of tetanus infection, suggesting that cellular immunity activated by tetanus might have occurred.T1LR present as
tetanus 9340 symptoms of T1LR after a few days of tetanus infection, suggesting that cellular immunity activated by tetanus might have occurred.T1LR present as the induration and erythema of existing lesions, frequently with
tetanus 10697 manifestation of a leprosy reaction. After further careful examination, we confirmed the diagnosis of tetanus with concurrent T1LR. T1LR involve no trismus, opisthotonus, muscle rigidity, or paroxysmal spasms.
tetanus 10964 differentiate upon cautious diagnosis.ConclusionThis report first demonstrates a rare case of T1LR following tetanus infection, suggesting that tetanus infection may be a trigger for T1LR.Additional fileAdditional file
tetanus 10999 diagnosis.ConclusionThis report first demonstrates a rare case of T1LR following tetanus infection, suggesting that tetanus infection may be a trigger for T1LR.Additional fileAdditional file 1:Multilingual abstract in the five
tuberculoid leprosy 121 Diseases of PovertyA rare case of type 1 leprosy reactions following tetanus infection in a borderline tuberculoid leprosy patient and a literature reviewChao ShiZhi-Chun JingDe-Gang YangJian-Yu ZhuPublication date (epub):
tuberculoid leprosy 2142 related to cellular immune responses to Mycobacterium leprae antigens and mainly occur in borderline tuberculoid leprosy (BT), mid-borderline leprosy (BB) and borderline lepromatous leprosy (BL) patients [[1]]. T1LR can occur

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