Epidemiology of Taenia saginata taeniosis/cysticercosis: a systematic review of the distribution in the Americas

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cysticercosis 68 Title: Parasites & VectorsEpidemiology of Taenia saginata taeniosis/ cysticercosis : a systematic review of the distribution in the AmericasUffe Christian BraaeLian F. ThomasLucy J. RobertsonVeronique
cysticercosis 550 Americas is unclear. Establishing the distribution, economic burden, and potentials for control of bovine cysticercosis is increasingly important due to the growing demand for beef. This paper aims to take the first step
cysticercosis 737 aims to take the first step and reviews the recent distribution of T. saginata taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis on a national level within the Americas.MethodsWe undertook a systematic review of published and grey
cysticercosis 951 grey literature for information on the occurrence, prevalence, and geographical distribution of bovine cysticercosis and human taeniosis in the 54 countries and territories of the Americas between January 1st, 1990 and
cysticercosis 1103 countries and territories of the Americas between January 1st, 1990 and December 31st, 2017. Data on bovine cysticercosis from OIE reports from 1994 to 2005 were also included.ResultsWe identified 66 papers from the Americas
cysticercosis 1271 included.ResultsWe identified 66 papers from the Americas with data on the occurrence of taeniosis or bovine cysticercosis and an additional 19 OIE country reports on bovine cysticercosis. Taeniosis was reported from 13 countries,
cysticercosis 1336 occurrence of taeniosis or bovine cysticercosis and an additional 19 OIE country reports on bovine cysticercosis . Taeniosis was reported from 13 countries, with nine of these countries reporting specifically T. saginata
cysticercosis 1601 non-species specific taeniosis. The reported prevalence of taeniosis ranged between 0.04–8.8%. Bovine cysticercosis was reported from 19 countries, nine identified through the literature search, and an additional 10
cysticercosis 1817 identified through the OIE country reports for notifiable diseases. The reported prevalence of bovine cysticercosis ranged between 0.1–19%. Disease occurrence was restricted to 21 countries within the Americas, the
cysticercosis 2013 the Americas, the majority from the mainland, with the only island nations reporting either bovine cysticercosis or taeniosis being Cuba, Haiti, and the US Virgin Islands.ConclusionsTaenia saginata is widely distributed
cysticercosis 2547 improve the data quantity and quality, and may enable estimation of the economic burden due to bovine cysticercosis in the region in turn determining the requirement for and cost-effectiveness of control measures.Electronic
cysticercosis 3023 where cattle are kept. The parasite is transmitted from human tapeworm carriers (taeniosis) to bovines ( cysticercosis ) by excretion of eggs or proglottids containing eggs into the environment via the stool. Bovines can
cysticercosis 3611 saginata, raw or undercooked bovine meat or offal containing infective cysts must be consumed. Bovine cysticercosis has been associated with various environmental factors related to water sources, such as animals having
cysticercosis 3896 wastewater sources [[1]].Taeniosis causes only a few, if any, mild symptoms in humans [[2]], and bovine cysticercosis is usually asymptomatic. The primary burden of the parasite is therefore the economic burden imposed
cysticercosis 4607 freezing, transport and processing of the meat. However, the current economic burden due to bovine cysticercosis in the Americas has not been estimated.Post-mortem inspection procedures of carcasses for pathogens
cysticercosis 4893 countries. In general, however, this diagnostic method has low sensitivity for detection of bovine cysticercosis [[3]–[5]]. Nevertheless, routine meat inspection remains the preferred tool for T. saginata detection
cysticercosis 6011 sanitation are considered high and routine meat inspection enforced, such as within Europe, bovine cysticercosis still remains widely distributed [[8]]. There is no clear overview of the distribution of this zoonotic
cysticercosis 6411 paper aims to take the first step, and reviews the distribution of T. saginata taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis on a national level within the Americas between 1990 and 2017.MethodsSearch strategyWe undertook a systematic
cysticercosis 6653 published literature for information on the occurrence, prevalence, and geographical distribution of bovine cysticercosis and human taeniosis in the Americas between January 1st, 1990 and December 31st, 2017, using an approach
cysticercosis 10016 were also screened for relevant literature.Fig. 1Flow diagram of the database searchesData on bovine cysticercosis from OIE reports from 1994 to 2005 were also obtained [[10], [11]]. Additionally, we sought to obtain
cysticercosis 11065 USA).ResultsSearch resultsThe database searches yielded 62 articles presenting data on taeniosis or bovine cysticercosis in the Americas. An additional four articles were identified from other sources and confirmed occurrence
cysticercosis 11236 identified from other sources and confirmed occurrence of taeniosis in Venezuela, and occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in the USA and the US Virgin Islands. Of the 66 articles identified, 31 reported occurrences of taeniosis,
cysticercosis 11391 the 66 articles identified, 31 reported occurrences of taeniosis, 33 reported occurrences of bovine cysticercosis , and two papers reported occurrences of both diseases. A total of 19 OIE country reports were also identified.
cysticercosis 11604 identified. All eligible references are listed within the tables of this paper.Taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis occurrenceIn the period 1990–2017, taeniosis or bovine cysticercosis has been reported within all
cysticercosis 11675 this paper.Taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis occurrenceIn the period 1990–2017, taeniosis or bovine cysticercosis has been reported within all mainland countries in the Americas except for Belize, French Guiana, Guyana,
cysticercosis 12414 tapeworm species were not confirmed in any of the reports. In seven countries there were reports of bovine cysticercosis , but no reports of taeniosis. In total, 33 papers reporting the occurrence of taeniosis within the Americas
cysticercosis 16498 na information not providedaFirst-level administrationbNo description of species confirmationBovine cysticercosis Bovine cysticercosis was reported from 19 countries within the Americas during the period 1990–2017.
cysticercosis 16518 providedaFirst-level administrationbNo description of species confirmationBovine cysticercosisBovine cysticercosis was reported from 19 countries within the Americas during the period 1990–2017. The literature search
cysticercosis 16674 Americas during the period 1990–2017. The literature search identified nine countries with bovine cysticercosis , and an additional 10 countries were identified through the 1994 and 2005 OIE country reports for notifiable
cysticercosis 16933 saginata was reported from humans in both Guatemala and Peru during 1990–2017, but no reports of bovine cysticercosis could be obtained from these two countries (Fig. 3). Cuba, Haiti and the US Virgin Islands were the
cysticercosis 17096 3). Cuba, Haiti and the US Virgin Islands were the only island nations/territories to report bovine cysticercosis during the study period. On the mainland most countries reported bovine cysticercosis, but no reports
cysticercosis 17182 report bovine cysticercosis during the study period. On the mainland most countries reported bovine cysticercosis , but no reports could be found from Belize, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Panama. Of the 35 papers
cysticercosis 17347 Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Panama. Of the 35 papers identified that reported occurrence of bovine cysticercosis , seven did not contain sufficient data for prevalence calculations. All seven papers reported results
cysticercosis 17587 inspections in Brazil, Chile, Cuba, the USA and the US Virgin Islands, respectively (Table 4).Fig. 3Bovine cysticercosis occurrence and countries with studies reporting prevalence in the period 1990–2017Table 4Reported
cysticercosis 17722 countries with studies reporting prevalence in the period 1990–2017Table 4Reported occurrence of bovine cysticercosis (case studies/published data without full prevalence or incidence data) based on meat inspectionCountryYearLocation
cysticercosis 18748 detection (Ag-ELISA, study in Ecuador) were also used as diagnostic techniques.Table 5Prevalence of bovine cysticercosis (published data)CountryYearLocation of studyaTime framePrevalence (95% CI)Diagnostic techniqueReferenceBrazil2013Minas
cysticercosis 21111 information not providedaFirst-level administrationBrazil was the only country, where data on bovine cysticercosis could be obtained from several regions of the country. In the period 1990–2017, bovine cysticercosis
cysticercosis 21214 cysticercosis could be obtained from several regions of the country. In the period 1990–2017, bovine cysticercosis was reported in 70% (19/27) of the states (first-level administration) in Brazil. As an illustration
cysticercosis 21347 (19/27) of the states (first-level administration) in Brazil. As an illustration of risk of bovine cysticercosis , Fig. 4 shows the 2006 modelled density of cattle in Brazil [[12]], overlaid with the 19 states from
cysticercosis 21475 the 2006 modelled density of cattle in Brazil [[12]], overlaid with the 19 states from where bovine cysticercosis was reported during 1990–2017.Fig. 4States in Brazil with bovine cysticercosis during 1990–2017
cysticercosis 21556 from where bovine cysticercosis was reported during 1990–2017.Fig. 4States in Brazil with bovine cysticercosis during 1990–2017 and the modelled cattle density for Brazil in 2006 [[12]]DiscussionThis review shows
cysticercosis 22514 prescribed to patients will be effective against either parasite species [[13], [14]], despite the risk of cysticercosis transmission to either the carrier or their family members if T. solium is present.The majority of the
cysticercosis 23470 would make comparison between studies and areas less biased.It is clear from this review that bovine cysticercosis is widely distributed across the mainland of the Americas. It also indicates, however, a scarcity of
cysticercosis 23736 taeniosis was reported from both Guatemala and Peru, but we were unable to identify any reports of bovine cysticercosis from either country. More than half of countries found to have bovine cysticercosis were found through
cysticercosis 23820 reports of bovine cysticercosis from either country. More than half of countries found to have bovine cysticercosis were found through the OIE databases [[10], [11]]. However, bovine cysticercosis is no longer notifiable
cysticercosis 23901 found to have bovine cysticercosis were found through the OIE databases [[10], [11]]. However, bovine cysticercosis is no longer notifiable to the OIE, and the reporting, if any, is not standardised across the countries
cysticercosis 24059 reporting, if any, is not standardised across the countries in the region. The occurrence of bovine cysticercosis could only be georeferenced to a first-level administration in five countries. This illustrates that
cysticercosis 24336 data are needed to pinpoint areas of risk and areas with high transmission rates. Presence of bovine cysticercosis seems to be related to the number of animals within a farm [[17]], spatial modelling of livestock density
cysticercosis 24628 risk, such as previously done for T. solium [[18]]. Detailed mapping studies with prevalence of bovine cysticercosis are warranted for all endemic countries; however, such studies only seem to have been performed in Brazil.
cysticercosis 24756 for all endemic countries; however, such studies only seem to have been performed in Brazil. Bovine cysticercosis prevalence based on meat inspection ranged from very low levels to almost 19%, which is a higher range
cysticercosis 25111 mainland (Belize, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Panama) did not have reports of taeniosis or bovine cysticercosis . All five countries have cattle industries and in 2016 had an estimated number of cattle: 110,024 in
cysticercosis 25354 Guiana, 10,115 in Guyana, 36,138 in Suriname, and 1,554,200 in Panama [[22]]. Due to reports of bovine cysticercosis from neighbouring countries, the missing reports could be a result of underreporting rather than absence
cysticercosis 26188 annually [[22]], which would likely mitigate any potential outbreak to burn out quickly. However, bovine cysticercosis was found on the two largest Caribbean islands (Cuba and Hispaniola). On Hispaniola, bovine cysticercosis
cysticercosis 26294 cysticercosis was found on the two largest Caribbean islands (Cuba and Hispaniola). On Hispaniola, bovine cysticercosis was only reported in Haiti (Fig. 4); thus, investigations to explore the situation in the Dominican
cysticercosis 26510 Republic are highly warranted.There are clear diagnostic issues in terms of both taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis . The sensitivity of meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis can be increased to some extent by making
cysticercosis 26571 in terms of both taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis. The sensitivity of meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis can be increased to some extent by making more incisions into organs and muscles of the carcass. However,
cysticercosis 27178 more incisions in the heart has been shown to increase the sensitivity for the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis compared to the EU-approved routine meat inspection [[25]]. Still, more research is required to determine
cysticercosis 27419 inspection procedures should be changed and what consequences it will have for areas of low and high bovine cysticercosis endemicity, respectively. Another approach to reduce transmission risk could be risk-based meat inspection
cysticercosis 28167 a protocol for estimating the distribution, prevalence, incidence and the economic burden of bovine cysticercosis . Based on the economic analyses, cost-effective measures can then be implemented, if appropriate, in
cysticercosis 28729 programmes. Such programmes would ameliorate the lack of data needed to quantify the economic burden bovine cysticercosis imposes on the region. These issues should be addressed in order to assess the need and advocate for
cysticercosis 29177 presence of Taenia saginata in the Americas during 1990-2017. Table S2. States in Brazil with bovine cysticercosis in 1990–2017. Table S3. Countries in the Americas with Taenia saginata occurrence in 1990-2017. (XLSX
taeniasis 7886 (cysticerc* OR cisticerc* OR "C. bovis" OR taenia* OR tenia* OR saginata OR taeniosis OR teniosis OR taeniasis OR ténia OR taeniid OR cysticerque OR Taeniarhynchus) AND (America OR USA OR Brazil OR Argentina OR

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