Candida auris: A systematic review and meta-analysis of current updates on an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
Piedra 5 infectiousdiseases
septic shock 1 infectiousdiseases
abscess 1 infectiousdiseases
flucytosine 3 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
gentamicin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
AIDS 1 infectiousdiseases
Voriconazole 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
chlorhexidine 5 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
vancomycin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
Caspofungin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
candidiasis 1 infectiousdiseases
chloramphenicol 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
fluconazole 4 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
pneumonia 4 infectiousdiseases
Itraconazole 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
candidemia 1 infectiousdiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

Note: If this graph is empty, then there are no terms that meet the proximity constraint.

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Caspofungin 41372 B.eMicafungin.fNot determined.gWhole genome sequencing.hNot stated.iFemale.jCerebrospinal fluid.kVoriconazole.l Caspofungin .mA novel orally bioavailable 1,3‐β‐D‐glucan synthesis inhibitor antifungal drug.nisavuconazole.oItraconazole.pPosaconazole.qFlucytosine.rAnidulafungin.sInternal
Itraconazole 41487 novel orally bioavailable 1,3‐β‐D‐glucan synthesis inhibitor antifungal drug.nisavuconazole.o Itraconazole .pPosaconazole.qFlucytosine.rAnidulafungin.sInternal transcribed spacer region.tCentral venous catheter.uAmplified
Voriconazole 41358 MCF ≥ 4.bMale.cFluconazole.dAmphotericin B.eMicafungin.fNot determined.gWhole genome sequencing.hNot stated.iFemale.jCerebrospinal fluid.k Voriconazole .lCaspofungin.mA novel orally bioavailable 1,3‐β‐D‐glucan synthesis inhibitor antifungal drug.nisavuconazole.oItraconazole.pPosaconazole.qFlucytosine.rAnidulafungin.sInternal
chloramphenicol 71842 ease, 100% specificity and sensitivity, and low cost. These broths, consisting of 10% salt, gentamicin, chloramphenicol and either dulcitol, mannitol or dextrose in Sabouraud broth or Yeast Nitrogen base (YNB), could inhibit
chlorhexidine 55611 patient in the nose, but this was cleared after receiving oral nystatin, nasal ointment and continual chlorhexidine washes; the nurse obtained the C. auris colonization from the patient. Fortunately, the nurse was only
chlorhexidine 94544 among 50 patients admitted to a cardiothoracic center in London, UK (Schelenz et al., 2016). Daily chlorhexidine washes could not eradicate C. auris colonization, possibly due to reinfection from patients’ bedding
chlorhexidine 95125 complete eradication from the hospital difficult despite thorough decolonization and decontamination with chlorhexidine ‐based products and hydrogen‐peroxide vapor. Hence, positive patients can shed C. auris into the
chlorhexidine 106889 patients, skin and surface wounds etc. should be decontaminated, using chlorine‐based detergents such as chlorhexidine (0.2%–4%) and hydrogen peroxide vapor (Schelenz et al., 2016; Sherry et al., 2017). As well, chlorhexidine‐impregnated
chlorhexidine 107000 chlorhexidine (0.2%–4%) and hydrogen peroxide vapor (Schelenz et al., 2016; Sherry et al., 2017). As well, chlorhexidine ‐impregnated protective discs for all CVC exit sites can aid reduce line‐associated C. auris BSIs
fluconazole 1719 sepsis (≥48), lung diseases (≥39), kidney diseases (≥32) etc. (p‐value < .0001). Resistance to fluconazole (44.29%), amphotericin B (15.46%), voriconazole (12.67%), caspofungin (3.48%) etc. were common (p‐value = .0059).
fluconazole 5743 environment. Furthermore, their resistance to at least one antifungal drug such as the azoles (particularly fluconazole and/or voriconazole), polyenes (amphotericin B), flucytosine, and the echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin
fluconazole 11418 and Prevention, 2017b) were used for interpretation of the MICs in the meta‐analysis: Resistance to fluconazole (FLZ) ≥32L, amphotericin B (AMB) ≥2, anidulafungin (ANF) ≥4, caspofungin (CFG) ≥2 and micafungin
fluconazole 41692 venous catheter.uAmplified fragment length polymorphism.vChronic kidney disease.wResistance: R (FLZ) = fluconazole resistance, R (AMB) = amphotericin B resistance.John Wiley & Sons, LtdAlthough susceptible C. auris
flucytosine 5804 drug such as the azoles (particularly fluconazole and/or voriconazole), polyenes (amphotericin B), flucytosine , and the echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin) is well documented (European Centre
flucytosine 29764 followed by AMB (n ≥ 111; 15.46%), voriconazole (VRZ) (n ≥ 91; 12.67%), CFG (n ≥ 25; 3.48%), flucytosine (FCN) (n ≥ 14; 1.95%), itraconazole (ITZ) (n ≥ 13; 1.81%), isavuconazole (ISA) (n ≥ 11;
flucytosine 47554 is generally resistant to FLZ, moderately resistant to AMB, and variably resistant to other azoles, flucytosine and echinocandins.VIRULENCE AND PERSISTENCE5Kumar et al. (2015) first undertook phospholipase, proteinase,
gentamicin 71830 relative ease, 100% specificity and sensitivity, and low cost. These broths, consisting of 10% salt, gentamicin , chloramphenicol and either dulcitol, mannitol or dextrose in Sabouraud broth or Yeast Nitrogen base
vancomycin 52752 similar to that of other species of Candida, methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin ‐resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and carbapenem‐resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) (Piedrahita et al.,
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
AIDS 61161 antifungal or antibiotic therapy, or comorbid disease conditions such as diabetes mellitus and HIV/ AIDS (Al‐Siyabi et al., 2017; Ben‐Ami et al., 2017; Calvo et al., 2016; Chowdhary et al., 2013, 2014;
Piedra 15655 also enhance persistence in the host, aiding in the dissemination of this pathogen in the environment ( Piedra hita et al., 2017; Schelenz et al., 2016; Welsh et al., 2017).Figure 4Scanning electron micrograph
Piedra 52278 floors, sinks, the air, beds, on the skin, in nasal cavities and internal tissues of patients etc. ( Piedra hita et al., 2017; Schelenz et al., 2016; Vallabhaneni et al., 2016; Welsh et al., 2017). Piedrahita
Piedra 52378 (Piedrahita et al., 2017; Schelenz et al., 2016; Vallabhaneni et al., 2016; Welsh et al., 2017). Piedra hita et al. (2017) showed the ability of C. auris to colonize and spread from hospital environments
Piedra 52847 (MRSA), vancomycin‐resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and carbapenem‐resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) ( Piedra hita et al., 2017). However, C. auris was recovered at a higher rate than C. albicans, but significantly
Piedra 52991 was recovered at a higher rate than C. albicans, but significantly less than Candida parapsilosis ( Piedra hita et al., 2017). Further, Welsh et al. (2017) also evaluated the persistence of C. auris vis‐à‐vis
abscess 30574 (1)FLZc = 128, AMBd = 2, MCFe = 0.5NDfMALDI‐TOF MS, WGSgChronic otitis media, odontogenic brain abscess AliveSchwartz and Hammond (2017)Colombia (17)2016 (17)0–77 (9)/M, NSh (6)/FiBlood (13), peritoneal
candidemia 61703 of and re‐infection with C. auris in most patients, and the removal of catheters resolved several candidemia (Chowdhary et al., 2014; Lee et al., 2011; Ruiz Gaitán et al., 2017). Hence, removal of catheters
candidiasis 100866 approach was recently established by Lepak et al. (2017) for FLZ and AMB using neutropenic disseminated candidiasis murine models infected with C. auris (Lepak et al., 2017). Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD)
pneumonia 33423 (4), malignancies (3), sepsis (4), acute renal failure (2), chronic kidney disease (3), (broncho‐) pneumonia (2), peripheral occlusive vascular disease (3), IgA nephropathy, hydronephrosis etc.Demised (4)Chowdhary
pneumonia 35858 VRZ = 0.38, CFG = 0.0064NDVITEK 2, MAST ID CHROMagar, PCR (of ITS1 and D1/D2)Chronic renal failure, lobar pneumonia , immotile cilia syndrome, bronchiectasis, recurrent sinusitisDemisedEmara et al. (2015)Norway (1)NS
pneumonia 38003 MCF = 0.03NDAPI 20C, VITEK 2 YST ID, PCR and sequencing (of ITS1 and D1/D2)Hypoxic encephalopathy and aspiration pneumonia (1), laryngeal carcinoma (1), hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (1)Demised (2)Lee et al. (2011)South
pneumonia 58972 including diabetes (n ≥ 52), sepsis or blood stream infections (BSI) (n ≥ 48), pulmonary diseases/ pneumonia (n ≥ 39), chronic/acute kidney failure/pathologies, transplants etc. (n ≥ 32), immunosuppressive
septic shock 37029 AFLPDiabetes, hypertension, cardiac failure, edema and cellutitis (1), diabetes, osteomyelitis and septic shock (1)Demised (1)Mohsin et al. (2017)South Africa (4)2012–13 (4)85 (1), 73 (1), 60 (1), 27 (1)Blood

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