Application of Dendrimers for the Treatment of Infectious Diseases

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
efavirenz 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
tuberculosis 1 infectiousdiseases
chloroquine 5 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
ribavirin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
tenofovir 7 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
candidiasis 1 infectiousdiseases
diarrhea 2 infectiousdiseases
praziquantel 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
primaquine 5 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
visceral leishmaniasis 1 infectiousdiseases
mumps 1 infectiousdiseases
paromomycin 1 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
pneumonia 2 infectiousdiseases
schistosomiasis 6 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis A 1 infectiousdiseases
AIDS 9 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis C 5 infectiousdiseases
herpes simplex 6 infectiousdiseases
sulfadoxine 5 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
maraviroc 2 infectiousdiseasesdrugs
meningitis 10 infectiousdiseases
toxoplasmosis 4 infectiousdiseases
cutaneous leishmaniasis 1 infectiousdiseases
hepatitis B 2 infectiousdiseases
infectious disease 16 infectiousdiseases
malaria 14 infectiousdiseases
zidovudine 6 infectiousdiseasesdrugs

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

Note: If this graph is empty, then there are no terms that meet the proximity constraint.

Review

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
chloroquine 27934 South-East Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean [[136],[137]]. Malaria is treated using antimalarials such as chloroquine (Figure 8a), primaquine (Figure 8b), artemisinin (Figure 8c) and its derivatives. However, they suffer
chloroquine 28657 derivatives based on 2, 2-bis (hydroxymethyl) propionic acid (bis-MPA) and Pluronic polymers containing chloroquine and primaquine (Table 1). They were investigated for their targeting ability in Plasmodium—infected
chloroquine 29037 yoelii. From the in vitro results, the dendrimers exhibited antimalarial activity with reduced IC50 of chloroquine and primaquine by 3- and 4-fold down to 4.0 nm and 1.1 μm, respectively. The dendrimers were also found
chloroquine 29855 uncoated poly-l-lysine dendrimers having polyethylene glycol (PEG-100) as a core for the delivery of chloroquine phosphate (Table 1). The in vivo results revealed that the dendrimers exhibited controlled drug release
chloroquine 54019 Type of DrugsType of InfectionReferencesPPIAmphotericin BLeishmaniasis[[116],[118]]PAASulfadoxine, chloroquine and primaquineToxoplamosis[[118],[119]]PAMAMDNA Chloroquine and primaquineSchistosomiasis Malaria[[120]]
efavirenz 32054 developed a polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers 9G3-S16 and G2-NF16) containing zidovudine (Figure 10a), efavirenz (Figure 10b) and tenofovir (Figure 10c) as anti-HIV-1 microbicides (Table 2). These dendrimers were
maraviroc 33845 of zidovudine [[160]].Crespo et al. formulated carbosilane dendrimers conjugated with tenofovir and maraviroc for the treatment of HIV-1 infection (Table 2). They were evaluated for anti-HIV-1 activity, cytotoxicity
maraviroc 34012 evaluated for anti-HIV-1 activity, cytotoxicity and vaginal irritation effects. The combination of maraviroc and tenofovir into the dendrimers exhibited a greater anti-HIV-1 activity than a single drug. These
paromomycin 19357 of the parasite to antimonial drugs, amphotericin B (AmB, Figure 3c), Miltefosine (Figure 3a), and paromomycin (Figure 3d) are being used as alternative therapeutics for the treatment of leishmaniasis [[110]]. However,
praziquantel 25738 caused by numerous species of trematodes from the genus Schistosoma [[130]]. Schistosoma is treated with praziquantel and is an effective bioactive agent (Figure 7) [[131]]. Despite its availability and cost-effectiveness,
praziquantel 25924 availability and cost-effectiveness, it does not prevent relapse [[131]]. The emergence of resistance of praziquantel to schistosomes is spreading and causing a major concern and there is a need to develop a new vaccine
primaquine 27959 Mediterranean [[136],[137]]. Malaria is treated using antimalarials such as chloroquine (Figure 8a), primaquine (Figure 8b), artemisinin (Figure 8c) and its derivatives. However, they suffer from severe drug resistance
primaquine 28673 2, 2-bis (hydroxymethyl) propionic acid (bis-MPA) and Pluronic polymers containing chloroquine and primaquine (Table 1). They were investigated for their targeting ability in Plasmodium—infected red blood cells
primaquine 29053 vitro results, the dendrimers exhibited antimalarial activity with reduced IC50 of chloroquine and primaquine by 3- and 4-fold down to 4.0 nm and 1.1 μm, respectively. The dendrimers were also found to exhibit
primaquine 54035 DrugsType of InfectionReferencesPPIAmphotericin BLeishmaniasis[[116],[118]]PAASulfadoxine, chloroquine and primaquine Toxoplamosis[[118],[119]]PAMAMDNA Chloroquine and primaquineSchistosomiasis Malaria[[120]] [[121]]Poly-l-lysineChloroquineMalaria[[122]]molecules-23-02205-t002_Table
primaquine 54095 BLeishmaniasis[[116],[118]]PAASulfadoxine, chloroquine and primaquineToxoplamosis[[118],[119]]PAMAMDNA Chloroquine and primaquine Schistosomiasis Malaria[[120]] [[121]]Poly-l-lysineChloroquineMalaria[[122]]molecules-23-02205-t002_Table
ribavirin 44818 measures are not taken [[179]]. The antivirals that are currently used such as sofosbuvir (Figure 14a), ribavirin (Figure 14b) have developed resistance to hepatitis C infection, hence there is an urgent need to develop
sulfadoxine 22829 Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite causes morbidity and mortality [[123]]. Pyrimethamine (Figure 5a) and sulfadoxine (Figure 5b) are currently being used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis (Table 1). However, there are
sulfadoxine 24338 et al. prepared poly (aminoamine)-based anionic and cationic dendrimers containing a reduced dose of sulfadoxine (0.03–33 mM). The MTT results on Vero and J774 cells showed no toxicity for cationic-sulfadoxine complex
sulfadoxine 24437 sulfadoxine (0.03–33 mM). The MTT results on Vero and J774 cells showed no toxicity for cationic- sulfadoxine complex incubated between 0.03 and 33 mM of dendrimers concentration. However, the anionic-sulfadoxine
sulfadoxine 24540 cationic-sulfadoxine complex incubated between 0.03 and 33 mM of dendrimers concentration. However, the anionic- sulfadoxine complex resulted in enhanced cytotoxic effects when incubated at higher than 33 mM of dendrimers concentration.
sulfadoxine 24997 dendrimers produced between 25% and 40% reduced infections. These results suggest that a nano dose of sulfadoxine - cationic complex can be used as a potential anti-toxoplasmic therapy [[128]]. The dendrimer exhibited
tenofovir 32081 carbosilane dendrimers 9G3-S16 and G2-NF16) containing zidovudine (Figure 10a), efavirenz (Figure 10b) and tenofovir (Figure 10c) as anti-HIV-1 microbicides (Table 2). These dendrimers were tested against X4 and R5 HIV-1
tenofovir 33831 sustained delivery of zidovudine [[160]].Crespo et al. formulated carbosilane dendrimers conjugated with tenofovir and maraviroc for the treatment of HIV-1 infection (Table 2). They were evaluated for anti-HIV-1 activity,
tenofovir 34026 anti-HIV-1 activity, cytotoxicity and vaginal irritation effects. The combination of maraviroc and tenofovir into the dendrimers exhibited a greater anti-HIV-1 activity than a single drug. These dendrimers were
tenofovir 43121 to host cell-surface proteins. The dendrimers exhibited good synergistic effect with acyclovir and tenofovir against HSV-2, in vitro. Topical vaginal or rectal administration of the formulation prevented HSV-2
tenofovir 54508 dendrimersAcyclovirHerpes[[150]]siRNACervical cancer[[151]]DoxorubicinCervical cancer[[152]]Carbosilane dendrimersZidovudine, efarvenz and tenofovir HIV[[148]]Maraviroc and tenofovirHIV[[153]]Heparan sulfateHerpes[[154]]OseltamivirInfluenza[[155]]SofosbuvirHepatitis[[156]]Acyclovir
tenofovir 54541 cancer[[151]]DoxorubicinCervical cancer[[152]]Carbosilane dendrimersZidovudine, efarvenz and tenofovirHIV[[148]]Maraviroc and tenofovir HIV[[153]]Heparan sulfateHerpes[[154]]OseltamivirInfluenza[[155]]SofosbuvirHepatitis[[156]]Acyclovir
tenofovir 54655 tenofovirHIV[[153]]Heparan sulfateHerpes[[154]]OseltamivirInfluenza[[155]]SofosbuvirHepatitis[[156]]Acyclovir and tenofovir Herpes[[157]]MicrobicideHIV[[158]]siRNAHIV[[159]]PPIZidovudineHIV[[160]]PETIMsiRNAHepatitis[[161]]PAGlycoprotein HHerpes[[162]]PAMAMHeparan
zidovudine 32029 [[147]]. Cardoba et al. developed a polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers 9G3-S16 and G2-NF16) containing zidovudine (Figure 10a), efavirenz (Figure 10b) and tenofovir (Figure 10c) as anti-HIV-1 microbicides (Table 2).
zidovudine 33157 developed a sustained release formulation of poly (propyl ether imine) dendrimers for the delivery of zidovudine (Table 2). Results from FTIR and NMR shows that zidovudine was successfully encapsulated onto dendrimers.
zidovudine 33216 ether imine) dendrimers for the delivery of zidovudine (Table 2). Results from FTIR and NMR shows that zidovudine was successfully encapsulated onto dendrimers. Cumulative drug release of zidovudine from the dendrimers
zidovudine 33301 NMR shows that zidovudine was successfully encapsulated onto dendrimers. Cumulative drug release of zidovudine from the dendrimers was 6.5 ± 0.3% when compared to the 95.8 ± 4.1% release from the control drug
zidovudine 33630 the haemolytic toxicity due to the stable drug encapsulation in the dendrimers when compared to pure zidovudine drug solution. These findings suggest that the dendrimers are potential carriers for sustained delivery
zidovudine 33748 solution. These findings suggest that the dendrimers are potential carriers for sustained delivery of zidovudine [[160]].Crespo et al. formulated carbosilane dendrimers conjugated with tenofovir and maraviroc for
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
AIDS 2384 by using the enzyme systems of the cells. Viral infections in human include herpes, influenza, HIV/ AIDS etc. [[6]]. About 7.7% of deaths in South Africa were caused by influenza and pneumonia in 2011 [[7]].
AIDS 2619 Africa also showed that about 44% of HIV patients were likely to have influenza co-infection [[8]]. AIDS still remains the top 10 leading causes of death in South Africa [[9]]. Although the number of infectious
AIDS 7746 complications to those with weakened immune systems such as infants, pregnant women and people living with HIV/ AIDS [[35]]. Most healthy people who are infected with toxoplasmosis show no signs or symptoms but some may
AIDS 8434 influenza etc. [[39]].3.1. HIVHIV is a human immune virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ) over time [[40]]. HIV attacks immune system of the body, causing low CD4 count. AIDS is the final stage
AIDS 8520 immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) over time [[40]]. HIV attacks immune system of the body, causing low CD4 count. AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection, but not everyone with HIV develop AIDS [[41]]. When HIV has manifested
AIDS 8596 causing low CD4 count. AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection, but not everyone with HIV develop AIDS [[41]]. When HIV has manifested into AIDS, it becomes life-threatening by destroying the white blood
AIDS 8638 stage of HIV infection, but not everyone with HIV develop AIDS [[41]]. When HIV has manifested into AIDS , it becomes life-threatening by destroying the white blood cells that usually fight infections [[42]].
AIDS 9276 symptoms of HIV infection include: fever, chill, joint pain, and rashes. If HIV has manifested into AIDS , then the symptoms may include diarrhea, dry cough, weight loss, night sweats and serious fever [[45],[46]].3.2.
AIDS 27652 being infected by malaria are children under the age of 5 years, pregnant women, people living with HIV/ AIDS and low-immunitive travellers from malaria-endemic regions [[135]]. In 2015, 214 million cases were
candidiasis 8812 usually fight infections [[42]]. This can cause serious infections and diseases like tuberculosis, candidiasis and meningitis etc. [[43]]. HIV is transmitted through sexual intercourse with an infected person, through
cutaneous leishmaniasis 6289 leishmaniasis but the most common in humans are: cutaneous and visceral [[26]]. The main symptom of cutaneous leishmaniasis is skin sores. Common symptoms for visceral leishmaniasis are weight loss, fever, enlarged spleen and
diarrhea 9312 fever, chill, joint pain, and rashes. If HIV has manifested into AIDS, then the symptoms may include diarrhea , dry cough, weight loss, night sweats and serious fever [[45],[46]].3.2. InfluenzaInfluenza is a contagious
diarrhea 19944 good efficacy, but it is very expensive with limitations such as low blood platelets, nephrotoxicity, diarrhea etc. [[113]]. Recently, the use of nanocarriers such as dendrimers have shown promising results in the
hepatitis A 13350 food or water that is already contaminated with the faeces of an infected person [[73]]. Symptoms of hepatitis A include vomiting, tiredness, joint pains, dark urine and intense itching [[74]]. Hepatitis B is caused
hepatitis B 13478 vomiting, tiredness, joint pains, dark urine and intense itching [[74]]. Hepatitis B is caused by the virus hepatitis B and it is transmitted from blood and body fluids of an infected person. It is also transmitted from
hepatitis B 45523 encapsulated with sofosbuvir was able to inhibit the virus infection [[156]]. Khosravy et al. conjugated hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) to dendrimers resulting in the induced high levels of total IgG in vivo
hepatitis C 13914 serious liver cancer, which could lead to liver transplant [[77]]. Approximately 80% of patients with hepatitis C develop chronic liver infection [[78]]. It is transmitted via sharing needles with an infected person,
hepatitis C 44611 world are estimated to suffer from Hepatitis C infection [[179]]. There is no effective vaccine against hepatitis C and the emergence of transmission of this virus is escalating especially when prophylactic measures
hepatitis C 44870 currently used such as sofosbuvir (Figure 14a), ribavirin (Figure 14b) have developed resistance to hepatitis C infection, hence there is an urgent need to develop new antiviral agents that will be able to deliver
hepatitis C 45321 carriers [[181]]. Crespo et al., synthesize polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers for the prevention of hepatitis C virus infection (Table 2). The preliminary studies showed that one of the dendrimers encapsulated with
hepatitis C 52227 attachment to the target cells. They also blocked the sexual transmission of HIV-1 and destabilized hepatitis C infection. These findings so far suggest that dendrimers are potential delivery systems for treatment
herpes simplex 12172 HerpesHerpes is a sexually transmitted disease [[65]]. Oral herpes is also known as HSV-1, or type 1 herpes simplex [[66]]. It can be transmitted via infected saliva, mucous membranes or skin [[67]]. This virus causes
herpes simplex 12465 fever, swollen lymph nodes and muscle aches [[68]]. Genital herpes is also known as HSV-2, or type 2 herpes simplex [[69]]. This virus causes sores around the genital areas. The virus is transmitted through skin-to-skin
herpes simplex 42110 The dendrimers were functionalized with the membrane-peptide gH (625–644) (gH625) derived from the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and encapsulated with glycoprotein H, which is known to be able to deliver cargos
herpes simplex 43920 poly(amide)-based dendrimers functionalized at the termini with a membrane-interacting peptide obtained from herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 glycoprotein H, gH625–644 (Table 2). This peptide has been shown to interact with
herpes simplex 52075 non-infected red blood cells.In the treatment of viral infections, dendrimers have the potential to inhibit herpes simplex virus. They hindered HSV-1 and HSV-2 attachment to the target cells. They also blocked the sexual transmission
herpes simplex 53497 branched with carbon-silicon bonds.Figure 12Generic representation of peptide dendrimers.Figure 13The anti- herpes simplex drug: Acyclovir.Figure 14Anti-hepatitis drugs: Sofosbuvir (a); Ribavirin (b).Figure 15Anti-influenza
infectious disease 1070 delivery. Dendrimers have attracted considerable attention as drug delivery system for the treatment of infectious disease s. The treatment of infectious diseases is hampered severely by drug resistance. Several properties of
infectious disease 1108 considerable attention as drug delivery system for the treatment of infectious diseases. The treatment of infectious disease s is hampered severely by drug resistance. Several properties of dendrimers such as their ability to
infectious disease 1367 control the release mechanism of the encapsulated drugs make them ideal systems for the treatment of infectious disease . The aim of this review is to discuss the potentials of dendrimers for the treatment of viral and parasitic
infectious disease 2185 by infectious agents, several researchers have developed drug delivery systems for the treatment of infectious disease s.Viruses are microorganisms living cells that replicate only within living cells by using the enzyme
infectious disease 2719 AIDS still remains the top 10 leading causes of death in South Africa [[9]]. Although the number of infectious disease s is still high globally, the overall death rate is decreasing. This may be due to the improved service
infectious disease 2932 service delivery, improved access to healthcare centre, good nutrition, and better education about infectious disease s [[10]]. However, in 2010, the number of death caused by infectious diseases had decreased [[11]]. The
infectious disease 3008 better education about infectious diseases [[10]]. However, in 2010, the number of death caused by infectious disease s had decreased [[11]]. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that there is a possibility of a
infectious disease 3150 The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that there is a possibility of a million deaths due to infectious disease s by 2050 indicating that there is a pressing need to develop therapeutics that can treat infectious
infectious disease 3258 infectious diseases by 2050 indicating that there is a pressing need to develop therapeutics that can treat infectious disease s effectively [[12]].Drug delivery systems are potential therapeutic carriers which offer several advantages
infectious disease 3451 carriers which offer several advantages when compared to the conventional drugs used for the treatment of infectious disease s. Some examples of delivery systems used for the treatment of infectious diseases are polymer-drug conjugates,
infectious disease 3532 for the treatment of infectious diseases. Some examples of delivery systems used for the treatment of infectious disease s are polymer-drug conjugates, micelles, nanogels, hydrogel, emulsion, dendrimers etc. The unique properties
infectious disease 3747 properties of dendrimers as drug delivery systems make them potential devices for the treatment of infectious disease s [[13]]. Some of the advantages are: reduced toxicity, increased specificity which results in the protection
infectious disease 4245 scavenging mechanisms. This review will report the biological efficacy of dendrimers in the treatment of infectious disease s.2. Parasitic InfectionsA parasite is an organism that lives within or on a host, and its survival is
infectious disease 15630 limitations, the application of targeted drug delivery system is an attractive carrier for the treatment of infectious disease s [[89]]. Drug delivery system is used to transport pharmaceutical compounds directly to the targeted
infectious disease 17086 review will demonstrate the importance of dendrimers as a targeted delivery system for the treatment of infectious disease s precisely viral and parasitic infections.4.1. Various Dendrimers and Their ApplicationsDendrimers have
infectious disease 52344 infection. These findings so far suggest that dendrimers are potential delivery systems for treatment of infectious disease s. However, there is a pressing need for more studies in order to fully understand their mode of action.Figure
malaria 4483 host. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated, while some are not. Common parasitic diseases are malaria , leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis and toxoplasmosis [[14],[15]].2.1. MalariaMalaria is a parasitic disease
malaria 4771 mosquitoes [[16]]. There are five types of Plasmodium parasite that infect humans, including: P. ovale, P. malaria e, P. knowlesi, P. vivax and P. falciparum [[17]]. Plasmodium falciparum is the species that causes the
malaria 4912 falciparum [[17]]. Plasmodium falciparum is the species that causes the most life-threatening form of malaria . The disease is transmitted to a person by a bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito [[18]]. It
malaria 5589 symptoms usually begin about ten to fifteen days after a mosquito bite [[21]]. Typical, symptoms of malaria include: fever, headaches, and vomiting, but in severe cases it can cause seizures, anemia, abnormal
malaria 27482 and IFN-γ.4.5. MalariaMalaria is life-threatening and half of the world’s population is at risk of malaria transmission [[134]]. People that are at a higher risk of being infected by malaria are children under
malaria 27566 population is at risk of malaria transmission [[134]]. People that are at a higher risk of being infected by malaria are children under the age of 5 years, pregnant women, people living with HIV/AIDS and low-immunitive
malaria 27692 the age of 5 years, pregnant women, people living with HIV/AIDS and low-immunitive travellers from malaria -endemic regions [[135]]. In 2015, 214 million cases were reported worldwide, with most deaths reported
malaria 27916 sub-Saharan Africa, South-East Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean [[136],[137]]. Malaria is treated using anti malaria ls such as chloroquine (Figure 8a), primaquine (Figure 8b), artemisinin (Figure 8c) and its derivatives.
malaria 28809 investigated for their targeting ability in Plasmodium—infected red blood cells (pRBCs) and their anti malaria l activity against the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo against the rodent malaria species
malaria 28907 antimalarial activity against the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo against the rodent malaria species Plasmodium yoelii. From the in vitro results, the dendrimers exhibited antimalarial activity
malaria 28998 the rodent malaria species Plasmodium yoelii. From the in vitro results, the dendrimers exhibited anti malaria l activity with reduced IC50 of chloroquine and primaquine by 3- and 4-fold down to 4.0 nm and 1.1 μm,
malaria 29633 biological environments. They also consist of functional groups that make it easy to encapsulate anti malaria l drugs. Figure 7 shows a typical example of amphiphilic dendrimers [[121]].Agrawal et al. synthesized
malaria 51849 IgG2a antibody response with an enhanced production of IL-2 and IFN-γ in vivo. In the treatment of malaria , the dendrimers exhibited specific targeting mechanism to the plasmodium red blood cells when compared
malaria 53110 representation of PPMO with transductive peptide.Figure 7The anti-schistosomiasis drug: Praziquantel.Figure 8Anti malaria ls drugs: Primaquine (a); Chloroquine (b); Artemisinin (c).Figure 9Schematic presentation of Amphiphilic
meningitis 8301 the cells’ enzyme systems [[38]]. They cause diseases such as HIV, herpes, cervical cancer (HPV), meningitis , hepatitis, and influenza etc. [[39]].3.1. HIVHIV is a human immune virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency
meningitis 8828 infections [[42]]. This can cause serious infections and diseases like tuberculosis, candidiasis and meningitis etc. [[43]]. HIV is transmitted through sexual intercourse with an infected person, through blood transfusion
meningitis 10899 disabilities such as coma, and can lead to death if not treated [[58]]. There are four common type of meningitis which include bacterial, viral, fungal and aseptic meningitis [[59]]. Bacterial meningitis is the most
meningitis 10961 [[58]]. There are four common type of meningitis which include bacterial, viral, fungal and aseptic meningitis [[59]]. Bacterial meningitis is the most life-threatening and can lead to death in few hours [[59]].
meningitis 10990 type of meningitis which include bacterial, viral, fungal and aseptic meningitis [[59]]. Bacterial meningitis is the most life-threatening and can lead to death in few hours [[59]]. It is caused by the bacterial
meningitis 11359 are likely to get permanent disabilities such as hearing loss, brain damage and coma [[60]]. Viral meningitis is caused by viruses such as enteroviruses, herpes varicella and mumps viruses [[61]]. Fungal meningitis
meningitis 11464 meningitis is caused by viruses such as enteroviruses, herpes varicella and mumps viruses [[61]]. Fungal meningitis is caused by pathogens such as Candida spp.-Histoplasma capsulatum and Cryptococcus neoformans. Fungal
meningitis 11578 caused by pathogens such as Candida spp.-Histoplasma capsulatum and Cryptococcus neoformans. Fungal meningitis is most common in people with low immune systems, and it is more severe in people with impaired immune
meningitis 11748 more severe in people with impaired immune systems (e.g., organ transplantation) [[62]]. Parasitic meningitis is caused by parasites such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Schistosoma, Toxocariasis and Gnathostoma
meningitis 11984 infection is believed to occur when there is a predominance of eosinophilia in the CSF [[63]]. Symptoms of meningitis include fever, stiffness of neck, nausea, headache and vomiting [[64]].3.4. HerpesHerpes is a sexually
mumps 11435 and coma [[60]]. Viral meningitis is caused by viruses such as enteroviruses, herpes varicella and mumps viruses [[61]]. Fungal meningitis is caused by pathogens such as Candida spp.-Histoplasma capsulatum
pneumonia 2467 herpes, influenza, HIV/AIDS etc. [[6]]. About 7.7% of deaths in South Africa were caused by influenza and pneumonia in 2011 [[7]]. A study conducted in South Africa also showed that about 44% of HIV patients were likely
pneumonia 11140 lead to death in few hours [[59]]. It is caused by the bacterial such as Streptococcus, Streptococcus pneumonia , Neisseria meningitides and Listeria monocytogenes [[60]]. Most people are lucky to recover from it,
schistosomiasis 4507 diseases are easily treated, while some are not. Common parasitic diseases are malaria, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis and toxoplasmosis [[14],[15]].2.1. MalariaMalaria is a parasitic disease caused by the genus Plasmodium
schistosomiasis 6717 Africa, South America and Asia [[29]]. In 2014, an estimated 61.6 million people were infected with schistosomiasis [[30]]. It is caused by a parasite called Schistosoma and the parasite is a fluke [[31]]. The parasite
schistosomiasis 25512 SchistosomiasisSchistosomiasis is still a major problem in the world; about 200 million people are infected with schistosomiasis across the globe. The most infected countries are Africa, Asia and South America [[129]]. The disease
schistosomiasis 26374 pharmaceutical and biomedical applications [[133]].Wang et al. designed PAMAM dendrimers for the delivery of schistosomiasis japonica DNA vaccine and investigated its ability to enhance a protective effect against Schistosoma
schistosomiasis 51696 Dendrimers have also been developed as vaccine carriers for the delivery of vaccine for the prevention of schistosomiasis infection which was characterized by IgG2a antibody response with an enhanced production of IL-2 and
schistosomiasis 53063 Sulfadoxine (b).Figure 6Schematic representation of PPMO with transductive peptide.Figure 7The anti- schistosomiasis drug: Praziquantel.Figure 8Antimalarials drugs: Primaquine (a); Chloroquine (b); Artemisinin (c).Figure
toxoplasmosis 4527 treated, while some are not. Common parasitic diseases are malaria, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis and toxoplasmosis [[14],[15]].2.1. MalariaMalaria is a parasitic disease caused by the genus Plasmodium parasite carried
toxoplasmosis 7801 infants, pregnant women and people living with HIV/AIDS [[35]]. Most healthy people who are infected with toxoplasmosis show no signs or symptoms but some may develop symptoms similar to flu, fever, body aches, headache
toxoplasmosis 22899 Pyrimethamine (Figure 5a) and sulfadoxine (Figure 5b) are currently being used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis (Table 1). However, there are some limitations in their use, such as toxicity and hypersensitivity [[119]].
toxoplasmosis 52923 stibogluconate; (c) Amphotericin B; (d) Paromomycin.Figure 4Dendrimer loaded with amphotericin B.Figure 5Anti- toxoplasmosis drugs: Pyrimethamine (a); Sulfadoxine (b).Figure 6Schematic representation of PPMO with transductive
tuberculosis 8798 blood cells that usually fight infections [[42]]. This can cause serious infections and diseases like tuberculosis , candidiasis and meningitis etc. [[43]]. HIV is transmitted through sexual intercourse with an infected
visceral leishmaniasis 6348 and visceral [[26]]. The main symptom of cutaneous leishmaniasis is skin sores. Common symptoms for visceral leishmaniasis are weight loss, fever, enlarged spleen and enlarged liver [[27]].2.3. SchistosomiasisSchistosomiasis

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